A series of Pieces published by AmlnJ : >"o. 1. Marcia e Hondo Pastorale ; D.
2. Donald, Hondo ; G.
3. Castle Goring, Rondo ; G.
4. Air with var. ; A.
6. Air (The Storm) with var. ; G.
6. Romance (Je suis encore) with TIP. ; O.
7. Variations ; U.
8. Do. ; 0.
9. Do. ; F. 10.
11. The favourite Tambourine avec Introd. et Final. Varia- tions ; C.
12. Variations, Harp and PF.
13. March and Rondo. Also ' Marcia e Rondo Pastorale.'
A series of Airs with variations published in Vienna (by Traeg?) : No. 1. 9 var. sur le Terzetto, Pria ch'lo impegno. (1797.)
2. 9 var. sur une Piece d'Alclna. (1797.)
3. 9 var. sur Weil der Mond so Heblich schelnt. (1797.)
4. 9 var. sur Ach schOn willkommen. (1798.)
5. 9 var. sur Herbey, herbey Ihr Leute. (1798).
6. 9 var. sur La stessa, la stessissima. (Salieri.) 0799.)
7. 9 var. sur Die HOlle 1st finster. (1801.)
8. 9 var.
9 yar. sur Weibchen treue ; Bk (Winter's Labyrinth.) (1799.)
9 var. sur Kind willst du ruhig schlafen. (Winter's Opferfest.) (1799.)
9 var. sur Wenn ich nur alle Mfidchen wttsste. (1798.)
9 var. sur Schau. das du bald ein Meister. (Des Schneider Hochzelt.) (1799)
9 var. sur Mein Vater hat gewonnen. (Liebe macht kurz. Process.) (1801.)*
9 var. sur 8e vuol ballare. (1802.)
Var. on ' Oh cara harmonia ' (air from * Die ZauberflO te.'
Var. on Wenn's Lieserl nur wollte.
Var. sur Menuet de Fischer ; Bb.
9 var. on a favourite German air, ' by the celebrated J. Woelfl." So. 7 ; A.
Romance de 1' opera Une Folie par MeShul var. p. Clav. ; G.
An dante vari6 ; G.
H. OTHER INSTRUMENTAL WORKS.
Concerto di Camera, PF. with ace. for Strings and Flute ; E \>J Redouten-T&nze for Orchestra.8 2 Trios for two Clarinets and Bassoon.
Grand Sonata for the Harp, in which is introduced a favourite air Of Cos! fan tutte (sic). Also published for P. F. Concerto, PF. and Violin. Trio, PF. and two Horns (1801 ?). Overture for Orchestra ; minor .w f J H M 1
WOHLTEMPERIRTE KLAVIER, DAS
THE WELL-TEMPERED CLAVICHORD, better known in England as ' THE 48 PRELUDES AND FUGUES ' probably the most extensively known of all Johann Sebastian Bach's works. It is in two Parts, each containing 24 preludes and 24 fugues. The first part was completed at Cothen in 1722 when Bach was in his 38th year, and to this alone he gave the above name. Subsequently (1744) he finished 24 more preludes and fugues ' through all the major and minor keys ;' and so like in design to the former series are these, that they have come to be regarded as the second part, the entire collection being now universally known under the one title.
1 Flayed at Berlin Dec. 10, 1800, but perhaps never printed. See A. M. Z. vol. 111. p. 237.
2 The airs of Nos. 4 and 5 come from Winter's ' Labyrinth.'
s No. 7 was certainly published by Traeg. No. 8 is assigned to this series on conjecture only.
- The air, by Henneberg, is taken from ' Liebe Macht,' etc.
Also published in ' The Harmonic Budget.'
e This is very likely identical with No. 7 published by Traeg. ? This was No. 3 of a series of pieces published by Chappell A Co. under this title. No. 1 was by J. B. Cramer, s See REDOUTEN-TANZE, vol. iii. p. 896.
Cp. A. M. Z. vol. iii. 834 and v. 7L
10 The three works last mentioned were never perhaps printed. The PF. and Violin Concerto was played at Berlin, Dec. 10, 1800 (A. M. Z. vol. ill. p. 237), the Trio at Leipzig about Michaelmas 1802 (A. M. Z. vol. v. p. 71), and the Overture at a Philharmonic Concert in London on March 25, 1822. The same (or a similar) Overture had been played twice before, and the Programmes of the time suggest the existence of Symphonies and Overtures which were not printed. The Concerto in which he transposed at Dresden (A. M. Z. vol. 1. p. 560) may also not have been printed, though it may have beeo Op. 43.
His own full title is as follows : ' Das wohl temperirte Clavier oder Praeludia und Fuyen durch alle Tone und Seniitonia so wohl tertiam majorem oder Ut Re Mi anlangend, als auch tertiam minorem oder Re Mi Fa betreffend. Zum Nutzen und Gebrauch der Lehrbegierigen Musicalischen Jugend als auch derer in diesem Studio schon habil seyenden besondern Zeit Vertreib aufgesetzet und verfertiget von Johann Sebastian Bach p. t. Hochfiirstl. Anhalt. Cb'then- ischen CajseW-Meistern und Directors derer C&mmeT-Musiquen. Anno I722.' 11
It was Bach's intention by this work to test the system of equal temperament in tuning. To this end he furnishes a prelude and fugue in each key, the keys following one another not according to their relationship, but simply in the order of chromatic ascent.
A credible tradition says that most of the first part was written rapidly ; in a place where Bach had no regular musical occupation, and where he was deprived of any musical instrument probably when accompanying his prince. This tradition is supported by Gerber, whose father, Heinrich Gerber was a pupil of Bach in Leipzig soon after 1722. Forkel, however, who probably possessed some general information on the subject from Bach's sons, says that earlier compositions were used in compiling the first part. Many of the preludes had certainly already appeared as independent compositions. In re- writing these Bach often considerably lengthened them, the one in C# to the extent of nearly forty bars. Eleven of them were given in a short form in the Klavierbiichlein (1720), written for his son Friedemann. When used for the later work, they were, however, more fully developed, especially those in C major, C minor, D minor, and E minor. The A minor Fugue, too, is without doubt an earlier composition. Spitta considers it belongs to 1707 or 1708. It is an open copy of one in the same key by Buxtehude, and judging from the pedal at its conclusion, it was not at first intended for the clavichord. Perhaps it is therefore somewhat out of keeping with the rest of the work written so manifestly for this instrument. Witness for instance the commence- ment of the 1 6th bar of the Eb minor fugue, where the upper part stops shorten Cb, evidently because Db was not available on most clavichords. Again, in the soth bar of the A major fugue it is apparent that the imitation in the right hand is accommodated to a limited keyboard. In the second part of the work Db above the line occurs but once in the 68th bar of the Ab prelude. In compiling this, Bach again availed himself of earlier compositions, though not to such an extent as in the first part. The prelude in C is given, however, as a piece of 17 bars' length in a Klavierbuch of J. P. Kellner's, with the date * 3. Juli 1726.' The Fugue in G had twice
U The Well-tempered Clavier, or preludes and fugues In all the tones and semitones, both with the major third or Ut, Re, Ml, and with the minor third or Re, Mi, Fa. For the use and practice of young musicians who desire to learn, as well as for those who are already skilled in this study, by way of amusement ; made and com- posed by Johann Sebastian Bach, Capellmeister to the Grand Duke of Anhalt-CO then and director of his chamber-music, 1722.