��strength was especially concentrated on dramatic forms ; but as regards popularity his symphonic poem ' Tell,' the ' Idyllen fur kleines Orchester,' and the 'Traum am Khein' have been most fortunate. Zopff was a careful and prolific writer of critical, theoretical and didactic essays ; his 'Theorie der Oper' is a good illustration of the industry with Which he collected and utilised valuable information. He wrote several treatises on the cultivation of the voice, and paid special attention to the cure of defects caused by faulty training. He united lucidity, accuracy, and conscientiousness in his work, with kindness, generosity and hospitality in his social life. For foreigners and strangers he had always a friendly welcome ; and the weekly musical parties at his house afforded constant opportunities for the in- troduction of new artists and new compositions, while a special corner of the ' Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik ' was always reserved for notices of rising talent.
Zopff died of heart-disease at Leipzig, July 2, 1883. [A.H.W.]
ZOPPA, ALL A, i.e. halting, or limping. A term applied to a rhythm in which the second quaver in a bar of 2-4 time is accentuated, as in certain Hungarian pieces. [See MAGYAR, vol. ii. p. 197 &.] [G.]
ZORA. One of the many aliases of Rossini's ' Mose in Egitto,' in which the Bactrians are sub- stituted for the Jews. It was produced at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, April 20, 1850. ' [G.]
ZUKUNFTSMUSIK, la musique de Favenir, the Music of the Future. A journal for ' music to come ' is still wanting, writes Schumann l as early as 1833, 'Eine, Zeitschrift fur zukiinftige Musik fehlt noch ' and * of course,' he continues in his humorous way, 'only men like the old blind Cantor at the Thomas -schule (Bach) or the deaf Capjellmeister who rests at Vienna (Beethoven) would be fit editors.' Schumann himself became such an editor in 1834, and during the next ten years his paper, the
- Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik,' was mainly instru-
mental in bringing about a new state of things. Indeed the rapid success of Chopin, Gade, Sterndale-Bennett, Henselt, Heller, etc., with the better part of the contemporary public in Germany, was to a considerable extent due to Schumann's sympathetic and discriminating advocacy. In the hands of his successor, Brendel, the Zeitschrift ' became the organ of Wagner and Liszt, and particularly of a group of younger men, such as von Bulow, von Bronsart, Draeseke, Cornelius, Tausig, who, from 1850 to 60, gathered round Liszt, at Weimar the headquarters of the so-called ' musicians of the future.'
In good faith, or with derisive intent, the ambiguous term 'Zukunftsmusik' and the nick- name ' Zukunftsmusiker ' have been in use since about 1850, when Wagner published 'Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft' (the Art-work of the Future). 8 According to Wagner it was Dr. L.
1 Schumann! Gex. Schriften, t. 49, 1st. ed. 1854.
2 See the article WAONEB, vol. iv p. 367 seq.
F. C. Bischoff, 3 editor of the Rheinische and the Nieder-rheinische Musik-zeitungen (the now de- funct rivals of the Neue Zeitschrift) who first perverted Wagner's idea of the ' art-work of the future * into that of the ' music of the future,' i.e. inartistic music, cacophonous to contemporary ears, but intended by its perpetrators to please a coming generation. Liszt, together with his disciples at Weimar, accepted the nickname Zukunftsmusiker, and delighted in it, ' much as ere while lesgueux of Holland adopted the appella- tive contemptuously applied to them.' * Wagner also appears to have accepted the term at least ' Zukunftsmusik ' is the German publisher's title of his interesting 'Brief an einen franzosischen Freund ' (M. Frederic Villot, 'Curator des mu- se"e9 imperiaux '), which first appeared in French by way of preface to ' Quatre poemes d'operas traduits en prose francaise, pre'ce'des d'une lettre sur la musique' 8 (sic), and forms a re'sume' of Wagner's opinions. Berlioz, in his famous attack on Wagner, ' Les concerts de Richard Wagner : la musique de 1'avenir,' in the 'Journal des D^bats,' Feb. 1860 (reprinted in Berlioz 'A travers chants ') uses it ironically, ' si I'e'cole de la musique de 1'avenir,' etc. ; whilst Baudelaire in his pamphlet ' Richard Wagner a Paris ' (1861), adopts it without reserve.
Some of Wagner's adherents in Germany and in England endeavoured subsequently to limit the use of the term and to define its meaning : with them, 'Zukunftsmusik,' as distinguished from music written in the traditional classical form, is taken to signify music in which the outlines of form are modified by some general poetical idea or some particular programme, as in Liszt's Poemes symphoniques, or by the progress of the dramatic action, as in Wagner's dramas. Whether such a definition was prompted or sanctioned by Liszt or by Wagner need not be considered here. In any case the term ' Zukunftsmusik ' is absurd, and its use has led to much confusion. [E.D.]
ZUMSTEEG, JOHANN RUDOLF, born Jan. 10, 1760, at Sachsenflur, in the Mosbach dis- trict of Baden. His father being a valet to Duke Carl of Wirtemberg, he was admitted into the Carl-schule, at 'The Solitude,' near Stuttgart, where he received a good general education, and formed a close friendship with Schiller, also a pupil there. He was originally intended for a sculptor, but the love of music proved too strong, and he studied first the cello, and then composition with Poli, whom he suc- ceeded in 1 792 as Kapellmeister, and director of the Opera. His chief claim to a place in the history of music is that he was the pioneer of the ballad, a form afterwards carried to such per- fection by Reichardt, Zelter, and, pre-eminently, Lowe. Zumsteeg's best, and in his day widest known ballads were' Leonore,' ' Des Pfarrers Tochter von Taubenhayn,' Kolma,' Die Biisende,' 'Ritter Toggenburg,' 'Elwina,' and
- See BISCHOFF, vol. 1. p. 244.
Wagner. Ges. Schriften, vlli. 303-306.
Paris, 186L English translation, London, 1873.