Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/534

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

collections: (a) 'Etlich cristlich lider Lobgesang, vnd Psalm, etc.' printed at Wittenberg (Wackernagel No. cxxix.); (b) the Erfurdt Enchiridion (Wackernagel, No. clvii.); (c) the 'Teütsch Kirchen Ampt mit lobegesengen,' printed by Wolf Köppel at Strasburg (Wackernagel, No. clxii.); and (d) Walther's Wittenberg 'Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn'(Wackernagel, No. clxiii.). In (a) it is directed to be sung to the melody of 'Es ist das Heil'; in (b) it appears with the tune in the Hypophrygian mode to which it is usually sung especially in North Germany; in (c) it is set to a tune in the Hypoæolian mode, to which it is sometimes still sung in South Germany; and in (d) it appears with a tune in the Dorian mode. In Joseph Klug's Hymnbook (1535), besides the well-known Hypophrygian tune, it is set to another tune in the Phrygian mode, which was afterwards adapted to Andreas Knöpken's Psalm 'Hilf Gott, wie geht das immer zu.' The melody in the Erfurdt Enchiridion is as follows:

The use which Mozart has made of this Chorale in the Finale to Act II. of the 'Zauberflöte' is very interesting. It is now well known that this opera refers under a slight disguise to the suppression of Freemasonry by Maria Theresa. To masons both book and music are said to be full of allusions to the mysteries of the craft, and it seems probable that one of these is the introduction of the two men in armour who sing at the moment of Tamino's most solemn trial the motto inscribed on a pyramid set to the well-known chorale 'Ach Gott vom Himmel.' Jahn (W. A. Mozart' iv. 617) surmises that Mozart's attention was drawn to the chorale by Kirnberger's 'Kunst des reinen Satzes,' in which it is twice used as a Canto Fenno for contrapuntal treatment. A sketch is preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna of another four-part arrangement of the chorale, which still more closely resembles the passages in Kirnberger's work. The autograph score of the 'Zauberflöte' shows that the beginning of the scene between Tamino and the two men in armour has been carefully sketched. The chorale itself is sung in octaves by the two voices, accompanied by flutes, oboes, bassoons and trombones, whilst the strings have an independent contrapuntal figure.

[ W. B. S. ]

ADAM, A. C. P. 28 a, l. 14 from bottom, for 1835 read 1836. Add day of death, May 3.

ADAM, Louis. Add dates of birth and death, Dec. 3 and April 11, 1849.

ADAMBERGER. P. 29 a, l. 20 of article, for Anna Maria read Maria Anna; and, two lines below, for Antoine read Antonie; l. 7 from bottom, for sixty-four read sixty-one. (Corrected in late editions.)

AEVIA (Aeuia or Ævia). A technical word formed from the vowels of Alleluia; and used, in Mediæval Office Books, as an abbreviation, in the same manner as Evovae—which see.

In Venetian and other Italian Office-Books of the 16th century, we sometimes find Hal'a, or Hal'ah, substituted for Aevia.

[ W. S. R. ]

AFRICAINE, L'. Grand opera in 5 acts; words by Scribe, music by Meyerbeer. The composer received the book in 1838, but did not bring the work into its final shape until shortly before his death. Produced at the Académie, Paris, April 28, 1865; in Italian, under the French title, at Covent Garden on July 22 of the same year, with Madlle. Lucca in the part of Selika, and in English (translation by Kenney with same title) at Royal English Opera, Covent Garden, Oct. 21. [See ii. 323, 324.]

[ M. ]

AGITATO, l. 7. The direction 'Piano agitato' is probably a mere misprint for the 'Poco agitato' found in German editions.

AGNESI, Louis Ferdinand Leopold, the famous bass, whose real name was Agniez, was born July 17, 1833, at Erpent, Namur. He studied at the Brussels Conservatoire, under Bosselet and Fétis, and in 1853–55 gained the concours de Rome. He brought out an opera, 'Harold le Normand,' with indifferent success, and subsequently abandoned composition for singing. For the latter purpose in 1861 he received instruction from Duprez, and became a member of Merelli's Italian Opera Company, under the name Luigi Agnesi, during a tour through Germany, Holland, and Belgium. On Feb. 10, 1864, he first appeared at the Italiens, Paris, as Assur in 'Semiramide,' with the sisters Marchisio, and was engaged there for several seasons. In 1865 he was engaged at Her Majesty's theatre, where he first appeared with Murska May 22, as the Prefect in 'Linda di Chamouni,' and during the season he played Assur and Figaro (Le Nozze), and also sang at the Philharmonic, on each occasion with fair success.

In 1871, on his return to England, where he remained until his death, Feb. 2, 1875, he enjoyed a greater reputation, not only in opera at Drury Lane (1871–74), but as an oratorio and concert singer at the Handel and provincial Festivals, at the Sacred Harmonic, at the Philharmonic, etc. In addition to the parts above named, he played with success Pizarro (Fidelio),