Chiquelier, but the life at Versailles would not have suited the inventor, who wished to be at liberty to continue his experiments, and he contrived to get his nephew and pupil, Pascal Joseph, appointed in his stead. Having thus succeeded in preserving his independence with- out forfeiting the royal favour, he was shortly after elected an acting member of the corporation of musical instrument-makers (1775). He was brought more before the public by a piano made for the Princess Victoire in the shape of our present 'grands,' the first of the kind made in France. Other inventions were for using a single string doubled round the pin in his two-stringed pianos, working the pedal by the foot instead of by the knee, and the ' Armandine' (1789) called after Mile. Armand, a pupil of his niece, who be- came an excellent singer at the Ope'ra and the Ope'ra Comique. This fine instrument, now in the museum of the Paris Conservatoire, is like a grand piano without a keyboard, and with gut- strings, and is therefore a cross between the harp and the psaltery. Other specimens of his manu- facture are the harpsichord with two keyboards made for Marie Antoinette and still to be seen in the Petit Trianon, the pretty instrument in the possession of the distinguished pianist Mile. Josephine Martin, and those in the Conserva- toire, and the Muse'e des Arts ddcorntifs in Paris. Pascal Taskin died in Paris, Feb. 9, 1795. His nephew,
PASCAL JOSEPH/ born Nov. 20, 1750, at Theux, died in Paris, Feb. 5, 1829, Keeper of the King's Instruments and the Chapel Royal, from 1772 to the Revolution, was his best pupil and assistant. He married a daughter of Blanchet, and was thus brought into close connection with the Couperin family. Of his two sons and two daughters, all musicians, the only one calling for separate mention here is the second son,
HENRI JOSEPH, born at Versailles, Aug. 24, 1779, died in Paris, May 4, 1852, learned music as a child from his mother, and so charmed the Court by his singing and playing, that Louis XVI made him a page of the Chapel Royal. Later he studied music and composition with his aunt, Mme. Couperin, a talented organist, and early made his mark as a teacher, virtuoso, and com- poser. Three operas were neither performed nor engraved, but other of his compositions were published, viz. trios for PF., violin, and cello ; a caprice for PF. and violin; a concerto for PF. and orchestra; solo-pieces for PF., and songs. A quantity of Masonic songs remained in MS. Like his father he had four sons ; none of them became musicians, but his grandson ALEXANDRE seems to have inherited his talent. This young singer (born in Paris, March 8, 1853) is a thorough musician, has already created several important parts, and may be considered one of the best artists at the Opera Comique (1883).
The writer of this article, having had access to family papers, has been able to correct the errors of previous biographers. [G.C.]
Feils confuses the uncle and nephew.
TASTO SOLO. Tasto (Fr. touche) means the part in an instrument which is touched to pro- duce the note ; in a keyed instrument, therefore, the key. ' Tasto solo,' the key alone, is in old music written over those portions of the bass or continuo part in which the mere notes were to be played by the accompanyist, without the chords or harmonies founded on them. [G.]
TATTOO 1 (Rappel; ZapfenstrelcK), the signal in the British army by which soldiers are brought to their quarters at night. The infantry signal begins at 20 minutes before the hour appointed for the men to be in barracks, by the bugles in the barrack-yard sounding the ' First Post ' or ' Setting of the Watch.' This is a long passage of 29 bars, beginning as follows
��and ending with this impressive phrase :
��This is succeeded by the 'Rolls,' 2 consisting of three strokes by the big drum, each stroke fol- lowed by a roll on the side-drums :
��The drums and fifes then march up and down the, barrack-yard playing a succession of Quick marches at choice, till the hour is reached. Then ' God save the Queen ' is played, and the Tattoo concludes by the ' Second Post ' or * Last Post,' which begins as follows
�� �j J n J nJ h
��and ends like the 'First Post.' The other branches of the service have their tattoos, which it is not necessary to quote.
i The word Is derived by Johnson from the French tapotez tout ; and its original form seems to have been ' tap-to' (see Count Mans- field's ' Directions of Warre,' 1624), as if it were the signal for the tap-rooms or bars of the canteen to put-to or close. Curiously enough, however, 'tap' seems to be an acknowledged term for the drum 'tap of drum.' Tapoter is probably allied to the German zapfen, the tap of a cask, and tapfenslreich, the German term for tattoo ; this also may mean the striking or driving home of the taps of the beer-barrels. The proverbial expression ' the devil's tattoo' meaning the noise made by a person absorbed in thought drumming with foot or fingers, seems to show that the drum and not the trumpet was the original instrument for sounding the tattoo.
a For details see Potter's ' Instructions for the Side Drum/