It was almost immediately after their transfer to Europe by Zimiskes that we meet with traces of them in the West, showing that the activity of their propagandism was unabated.
In all essentials the doctrine of the Paulicians was identical with that of the Albigenses. The simple Dualism of Mazdeism, which regards the universe as the mingled creations of Hormazd and Ahriman, each seeking to neutraUze the labors of the other, and carrying on interminable warfare in every detail of life and nature, explains the existence of evil in a manner to enlist man to contribute his assistance to Hormazd in the eternal conflict, by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. Enticed by Gnostic speculation. Manes modified this by identifying spirit with the good and matter with the evil principle — perhaps a more refined and philosophical conception, but one which led directly to pessimistic consequences and to excesses of asceticism, since the soul of man could only fulfil its duty by trampling on the flesh. Thus in the Pauhcian faith we find two coequal principles, God and Satan, of whom the former created the invisible, spiritual, and eternal universe, the latter the material and temporal, which he governs. Satan is the Jehovah of the Old Testament ; the prophets and patriarchs are robbers, and, consequently, all Scripture anterior to the Gospels is to be rejected. The New Testament, however, is Holy Writ, but Christ was not a man, but a phantasm — the Son of God who appeared to be born of the Virgin Mary and came from Heaven to overthrow the worship of Satan. Transmigration provides for the future reward or punishment of deeds done in fife. The sacraments are rejected, and the priests and elders of the
cians and the Cathari, but incorrectly, although they may have had some influ-
ence in producing the moderated Dualism of a portion of the latter. Their
leader, Demetrius, was burned alive by Alexis Comnenus in 1118 after a series
of investigations more creditable to the zeal of the emperor than to his good faith.
They continued to enjoy a limited toleration until the thirteenth century, when
they disappeared. — See Annae Comnense Alexiados Lib. xv. — Georgii Cedreni
Hist. Comp. sub ann. 20 Constant.— Zonarae Annal. t. III. p. 238. — Balsamon.
Schol. in Nomocanon tit. x. cap. 8. — Schmidt, Hist, des Cathares, 1. 13-15 ; H. 265.
About the middle of the eleventh century Psellus describes another Manichgean sect named Euchitse, who believed in a father ruling the supramundane regions and committing to the younger of his two sons the heavens and to the elder the earth. The latter was worshipped under the name of Satanaki — (Pselli de Operat. Damon. Dial.).