wrote in threatening wise to the marquis, who responded with the same inquiry as King Richard, sending him the martial gear of the prelate, including his sword still stained with blood. Yet the proud noble felt his inability to cope with his spiritual foes, and not only liberated the bishop, but surrendered to him the fortress which had been the occasion of the war. Even more instructive is the case of the Bishop-elect of Verona, who, in 1265, when marching at the head of an army, was taken prisoner by the troops of Manfred of Sicily. Although Urban IV. was busily urging forward the crusade which was to deprive Manfred of life and kingdom, he had the assurance to demand the liberation of his bishop, telling Manfred that if he had a spark left of the fear of God he would dismiss his prisoner. When Manfred replied, evading the demand with exuberant humility, Clement IV., who had meanwhile succeeded to the papacy, called upon Jayme I. of Aragon to intervene. Neither pope seemed to imagine that there could be any hesitation in acceding to the preposterous claim, and King Jayme interposed so effectually that Manfred offered to release the bishop on his swearing not to bear arms against him in future. Even this condition was not accepted without difficulty. When the spiritual character thus only served to confer immunity for acts of violence, it is easy to understand the irresistible temptation to their commission.
- Chron. Senonens. Lib. v. cap. xiii.-xv. — Chron. S. Trudon. Lib. v. — Fulbert. Carnotens, Epist. 112. — Metzleri de Viris Illust. S. Gallens. Lib, ii. cap. 28, 30, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 45, 49, 53, 54, 56, 57, 60.— Martene Collect. Ampliss. I. 1188-9.— Vaissette, Hist. Ggn. de Languedoc. T. IV. p. 7 (Ed. 1742).— Gerhohi Reichersperg. Exposit. in Psalm Ixiv. cap. 34.— Ejusd. Lib. de Ædificio
Dei cap. 5. — Caesar. Heisterbac. Dial. Mirac. Dist. ii. cap. 9. — Matt. Paris. Hist. Angl. ann. 1196. — Rog. Hovedens. ann. 1197. — Benedicti Gesta Henrici H. ann 1188. — Baggiolini, Dolcino e i Patarini, p. 53 (Novara, 1838). — Martene Thesaur. n. 90-93,99, 100, 150, 151, 192.
A clerical rhymer of the thirteenth century describes the prelates of the day—
conticuere muti ; et a Deo discedunt. ad praedam sunt parati ut leones feroces et indecenter coronati, et ut aquilae veloces, pro virga ferunt lanceam ut apri frendentes pro infula galeam. exacuere dentes."
Carmina Burana, p. 15 (Breslau, 1883).