was usually for two or three years, though sometimes for seven or eight, and those who went to Palestine, if they were so fortunate as to return, were obliged to bring back testimonial letters from the Patriarch of Jerusalem or Acre. When Count Raymond was preparing to fulfil his long-delayed vow of a crusade, in his eagerness for recruits he procured in 1247, from Innocent IV., a bull empowering the Archbishop of Ausch and Bishop of Agen, within Raymond's dominions, to commute into a pilgrimage beyond seas the penance of temporary crosses and prison, and even when these were perpetual, if the consent could be had of the inquisitor who had uttered the sentence ; and the following year this was extended to those in the territories of the Counts of Montfort. Under this impulsion, the penance of crusading became common again. There is extant a notice given by the inquisitors of Carcassonne, October 5, 1251, in the church of St. Michael, to those wearing crosses and those relieved from them, that they must without fail sail for the Holy Land, as they had pledged themselves to do, in the next fleet; and in the Register of Carcassonne the injunction of the crusade is of frequent occurrence. With the disastrous result of the ventures of St. Louis and the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem this form of penance gradually diminished, but it continued to be occasionally prescribed. As late as 1321 we find Guillem Garric condemned to go beyond seas with the next convoy and remain until recalled by the inquisitor; if legitimately impeded (which was likely, as he was an old man who had rotted in a dungeon for thirty years) he could replace himself with a competent fighting-man, and if he neglected to do so, he was condemned to perpetual prison. This sentence, moreover, affords one of the rare instances of banishment, for Guillem, besides furnishing a substitute, is ordered to expatriate himself to such place as shall be designated, during the pleasure of the inquisitor.
These penances did not interfere with the social position and self-respect of the penitent. Far heavier was the apparently sim-
- Wadding. Annal. ann. 1238, No. 7.— Concil. Narhoun. ann, 1244 c. 2. — Concil. Biterrens. ann. 1246, Append, c. 26, 29.— Bcrgcr, Les Rcgistrcs d'Innocent IV. No. 3508, 3677, 3806— Coll. Doat, XXXI. 17.— Vaissette, III. Pr. 468.— MSS. Bib. Nat., fonds lutin, nouv. acq. 139, fol. 8.— Molinicr, L'In(|. dans lo niidi dc la France, pp. 408-9.— Lib. Seutentt. Inq. Tolos. pp. 284-5.— Coll. Doat, XXI. 185, 186, 217.