Page:A Manchu grammar, with analysed texts.djvu/20

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8
    • threefold ilarsu ilan ubu;
    • ninefold uyursu;
    • hundredfold tanggūrsu.
    With reference to textile fabrics ri is used: ilari threefold, sunjari fivefold, jakūri eightfold.

Other numeral expressions are: gemu both, durbejengge square, with four angles.


4. Verbs.

There are in Manchu pure verbal stems of one and more syllables lite o to be, ara to write, and verbs derived from nouns and adjectives.

The more common syllables used in case of such derivations are:

  • ta, to, te, da, do, de: gosin humanity--gositambi (also without any insertation: gosi-mbi); jali crafty--jalidambi to cheat.
  • na, no, ne: abdaha a leaf --abdahanambi to leaf; acan union--acanambi to meet.
  • la, le: hiyoošun (孝順) filial piety--hiyoosulambi to treat with filial piety; aba a hunt--abalambi to hunt
  • du, ndu: hiyoošun filial piety--hiyoosundumbi
  • ra, ro, re: gisun word--gisurembi to speak
  • ša, šo, še: injeku merry--injekušembi to laugh at; ddali similar--adalisambi to be similar.

In some cases it is doubtful whether the verb is derived from the noun or whether the latter is of verbal derivation: isan a meeting, isambi to meet; iren the track of fish, irenembi to ruffle the water (as fish do).

There are further syllables which, when added to the stem of verbs form new verbs. These are:

  • ja, mostly reflexive: gūninambi to think, gūninjambi the same; isambi to meet, isamjambi to collect.
  • nu, ndu, mostly cooperative: injembi to laugh, injendumbi to laugh together (injenumbi); arambi to do, arandumbi to do together.
  • ca, co, ce, cooperative and frequentative: injembi to laugh, injecembi to laugh together; dedumbi to sleep, deducembi to sleep together.
  • ji: wambi to kill, wajimbi to die; arambi to do, aranjimbi to come to do.
  • na, no, ne: isimbi to come near, isinambi to arrive.

An accumulation fo these syllables frequently occurs: ijumbi--ijurambi--ijursambi to besmear: abalambi to hunt, abalanambi to go hunting, abalanjimbi to come to the hunt, abalandumbi to hunt together; acambi to meet, acalambi to agree upon, acamjambi to collect, acanambi to meet, acandumbi to meet together, acanjimbi to come to meet.

Moods and Tenses. To express the moods and tenses the Manchu verb has 23 forms.

  1. The stem; the moods and tenses are produced by adding the following affixes to the stem of the verb:--
  2. mbi, 3. me, 4. ha (he, ho, ka, ke, ko, ngka, ngke, ngko), 5. ra (re, ro, ndara, ndere), 6. ci, 7. ki, 8. fi (pi, mpi), 9. mbihe, 10. habi (hebi, hobi, kabi, kebi, kobi), 11. habihe (hebihe, hobihe, kabihe, kebihe, kobihe), 12. habici (hebici, hobici, kabici, kobici); 13. cibe, 14. cina (cun), 15. kini, 16. mbime, 17. mbifi, 18. nggala (nggele, n?ggolo), 19. mbumbi, 20. mbubumbi, 21. ngge, 22. le (lengge), 23. leme (lame).[1]

  1. Whenever hereafter any of these affixes is referred to, its number as here given will be quoted in brackets.