Page:A Manchu grammar, with analysed texts.djvu/24

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Verb. Imperative. Preterite. Future. Past Gerund.
hafumbi hafuka hafundere hafupi
hatambi hataha hatara, hatandara
juilambi jailaha jailara, jailandara
jaksambi jaksapi
jalambi jalaka jalara, jalandra jalapi
jalumbi jaluka jalura jalupi
jembi jefu jeke, jengke jetere, jendere jempi
jimbi jio, ju jihe jidere
jombi jongko jondoro jompi, cond. jonci, opt. jongki
jumbi jungke jure jumpi, opt. jubki
jurambi jurapi
juwambi juwangka, juwaka juwara, jore juwampi
niorombi nioropi
ombi, oombi oso oho ojoro
sambi sangka sara sampi
sembi sengke sere
sosombi sosoko sosoro sosopi
sumbi sungke, suhe sure
šahūrambi šahūraka šahūrara šahūrapi
šambi šangka, šaha šara
šarambi šarapi
šumbi šungke šure šumpi
teyembi teyehe teyere, teyendere
tucimbi tucinu tucihe, tucike tucire
ukambi ukaha, ukaka ukara, ukandara
wasimbi wasinu wasika, ha wasire
wembi wengke were, wendere wempi, inf. weme
wesimbi wesinu wesike wesire wesipi
yombi yoha yoro, yondoro
yumbi yungke yudere, yundere yumpi

The Verb in the Negative.

Negation is expressed by akū not, is not (無, 不, 未, 沒有), waka not, no (不是), ume (莫) do not, unde not yet, umai not, not at all.

When joined to the Present Tense akū simply follows: bi gisurembi akū I do not speak. With other verbal forms akū loses its a: araha--kū he has not written, genehe--kū he did not go. Joined to the Future the a of akū remains: arar--akū he will not write, gener--akū he will not go. The affixes ci, fi, and ngge follow akū: generakūci if he does not go, akūfi not existing, bisirakūngge those who are not present (不在的). When alone akū takes the regular affixes: bi akūmbi I am not. A double negation often occurs, akūngge akū (無不): serakungge akū nothing unsaid, he says everything.

In interrogative sentences akū adds an n: si sembi akūn will you eat or not?

Waka not, no, is either employed like akū, but without taking the affixes, or stands at the beginning of a sentence and then means no: manju bithe hūlambi wakao do you not study Manchu?

Ume followed by the verb in the Future Tense (ra) expresses prohibition: ume fusikūsara do not despise; ume gunire do not think.

Unde is preceded by the verb in the Future Tense (ra): bi sabure unde I have not yet seen.