changed into v; and when it is followed by w, oo, or u, it changes to v or w, when aspirated.
20. N is sounded as n in English; it is never aspirated nor eclipsed, but yet called a light consonant, and is often doubled to give the greater sound.
21. O is a broad vowel; when acuted as o in gone, in English, answers the Manks son, cron, &c.
22. When O is circumflexed as in bone, shone, open, &c, thus ôney, ôyr, &c. Manks.
23. O before l in the Manks, sounds ohl.
24. P. This is a hard consonant, and pronounced as p in English.
25. PH is sounded as the English f.
26. Q, which is always followed by u, has the sound of kw.
27. R is a light consonant, and pronounced as r in English; but some times when an initial, it requires to be sounded as if written rh; as, red (a thing), rhed.
28. S, although called the queen of consonants, is subject to many changes, as shown in Remarks 55, 56, 57, 58, 111, 112, 161, &c. It sounds as (in English) savor, sense—saggyrt—sollan.
29. T. This is a hard consonant, naturally commuted with d; as, dy gerrid, for dy gerrit.
30. When T is an initial before a vowel, it requires to be sounded as if written th.
31. U is one of the three broad vowels with a and o, and sounded as u (in English) in cumber; as, cum (hold).
32. V is not properly a radical initial consonant; but only a secondary mute. However, we have some few words which begin with v as a radical; as, vaidjyn, yeih, &c.
33. W. Though I have set down this letter as a vowel, I know of no syllable or word without another vowel attached to it, with consonants, to make a word or syllable. The Welsh have it a vowel, without any support. Its sound is as oo'(in English) in boot, soot, root; as, wardoon, warp, warree.
34. Y. This letter as a vowel and a consonant is too frequently used in the Manks. Its first or primary sound would be as i (in English) in bind, bile, &c.
35. But Y has another sound as u, and is as i'(in English) in bird, third,—answering to the sound in spyrryd, ymmyrchagh, ynrican, &c. in Manks.
36. This letter has the sound of e in the word the (in English); as, dy, dty, my, sy, &c.
37. Y some times has the sound of ee, as in the English, barley, belly, stingy, &c.; as, lheiy, guiy, seiy, &c.
38. Such words as begin with mutable or changeable consonants, viz.: b, c, ch, d, f, g, j, k, m, p, q, s, sh, sl, and t, change these their radical initial letters as occasion require, and according to the effect the preceding words have on them.
39. The letter A, as an initial in radical verbs, changes to d, or rather has d placed before it, as shown in Remark 60; and to g, (or has g placed before it) as shown in Remark 61; and also changes to n,(or has n placed before it) to show the preterit or past time of the action of the verb: and so of all the vowels when radical initials.—See Remark 119, &c.
40. But the letter A and all the vowels change to h (or have h placed before them) to show the gentive or ownership case of the feminine gender, as may be seen under the H in the work, and in Remark 14.
41. Words, primarily beginning with B, have three initials, viz.: b, v, m; as, braar (a brother); e vraar (his brother); nyn mraar (your, &c. brother); &c. &c.
42. But when the second letter after the B is w, oo, or u, such words change to w or v as an initial; as, booiagh (willing or pleased); feer wooiagh (very willing or pleased, &c.); and bwoaillee (a fold); e woaillee (his fold); buighey (jaundice); yn wuighey or yuighey (the jaundice or yellows).
43. Words beginning with C have three initials, viz.: c, ch, and g; as, carrey (a friend); e charrey (his friend); nyn garrey (your, &c. friend).
44. Words beginning with CH have also three initials, viz.: ch, h, and j; as, chengey (a tongue); e hengey (his tongue); nyn jenoey (your, &c. tongue), &c.
45. Words initialled by D have two, viz.: d and gh; as, dooinney (a man); e ghooinney (his man), &c.
46. Words radically initialled by E, have four, and so have all the other vowels the initial vowel, and three others, viz.: e, or the other vowel, and d, g, and n; as, eece (pay); deece (paid or did pay); geeck (paying). See Remarks 60 and 61; and er neeck (hath or having, &c. paid). See also a change mentioned in Remark 40.
47. Some words commencing with E, radically, for better sound's sake begin with y, as, eeast (a fish), yeeast; eean (a chicken), yeean, &c.
48. Words beginning with F have nine or more changes, viz.: d and v, and the first vowel or consonant after the f, if the preceding word change it.
49. Words radically initialled by G have two, as g and gh; as, geay (wind); yn gheay (the wind). G also sometimes changes to y; as, giare (short); ro yiare (too short), though sometimes spelled ghiare; giall (white or bright); ro yiall (too bright). This and others are also written ro ghiall, &c.
50. Words commencing with J have two initials, j and y; as, jee (God); e yee, (his God); &c.
51. Words initialled with K have three, viz.: k, ch, and g; as, keyrey (a sheep); e cheyrey (his sheep); nyn geyrey (your &c. sheep), &c.