52. M, beginning words has but two initials, viz.: m and v; as, moyrn (pride); e voyrn (his pride), &c.
53. P, beginning words has three initials, viz.: p, ph, and b; as, pooar (power); e phooar (his power); nyn booar (your &c. power), &c.
54. Q, beginning radicals, has three initials, viz.: q, wh, and g; as, quaiyl (a court); e whuaiyl (his court); nyn guaiyl (your, &c. court), &c.
55. S, beginning words radically, has many changes, viz.: s, h, t; as sooill (an eye); e hooill (his eye); yn tooill (the eye).
56. And if S be followed by h, it changes to ch and h; as, shenn ghooinney (an old man); yn chenn ghooinney (the old man); e henn chooinney (his old man).
57. When S is followed by l, it changes to cl and l; as, slat (a rod); yn clat (the rod); e lat (his rod, &c.)
58. The letter S, apostrophized before adjectives and participles, I think is an abreviation of smoo, by which the degrees of comparison are shown throughout the language; first, the positive, firrinagh (true); secondly, a degree above the positive; as, s'firrinagh (how true); thirdly, the comparative, ny s'firrinee (more true); fourthly, the superlative, yn raa s'firrinee (the truest saying).
59. T, beginning words radically, has three initials, viz.: t, h, and d; as, towse (a measure); e howse (his measure); nyn dowse (your, &e. measure).
60. Verbs commencing radically with vowels, begin with d to show the preterit or past time of action, or negatively; as, aarlor aarlee (cook, dress, or prepare); daarlee (did cook, dress, or prepare); and negatively, cha daarlee, &c.; and eoyllee (dung or manure); deoyllee (did dung, or manure); and cha deoyllee, &c.
61. Verbs beginning in like manner with vowels, to show the present and also the past time of action, begin with g; as, aase (grow); oaase (growing); va mee gaase (I was growing); irree (rise); &c.
62. Of verbs irregular, which do not altogether change according to the foregoing remarks.—Cheet (coming), changes to haink, daink, hio, jig, harr, darr, heet, jeet, tar.
Clashtyn (hearing), clasht, chlashtyn, cheayll, cluin, chluin, geayll, gluin.
Cur, or Coyrt (giving, putting, sending, &c.), choyrt, hug, dug, ver and yerr, der and derr.
Fakin (seeing), akin, faik, hee, honnick, vaik, vakin, n'aikin.
Geddyn (getting), gheddyn fow, hooar, dooar, yio, yiogh, yiow, now, vow, vogh.
Goaill (taking), ghoaill, go, gho, gow, ghow, n'ghoaill.
goll (going), hie, hem, heu, hooin, gow, ragh, jaoh, jed, jem, je'oo, n'gholl, gholl.
Gra (saying), abbyr, dooyrt, ghra, jir, and jirr, yiar and yiarr, n'abbyr, n'yiarr.
Jannoo (doing), jean, jin and jinn, yinn, n'yannoo.
63.The regular verbs change their initials according to what has been said on the changing of the letters and their terminations, as specified in Remarks 77-88.
64. Of the forming of plurals in the Manks, the addition of yn to the singular is the most common, which is shown after the singulars through the work. Have the plurals housen, (which was formerly used as the plural in the English for houses), oxen, men, women, children, &c., any analogy to this? Undoubtedly they have.
65. Other words are formed into plurals by the addition of aohyn to the singulars; these, for the most part, are given in the work after their singulars.
66. There are other words that only require ghyn to be added to the singular.
67. Some singular words, ending in ey, change the ey to aghyn, to pluralize them; as, caggey (war); caggaghyn (wars); cooney (help); coonaghyn(helps), &c.
68. Other words ending in ey, change the y to eyn; as, bunney (sheaf); bunneeyn (sheaves) &c.
69. Other singulars ending in e and ey, change the e and ey to yn; as, paitchey (a child); paitchyn (children); fockle (a word); focklyn (words).
70. Some few singulars ending in ley, change the ley to jyn; as, billey (a tree); biljyn (trees); balley (a town or estate); baljyn (towns or estates), &c.
71. The termination of singulars in agh, for the most part to pluralize them, changes the agh to ee; as, gimmagh (a lobster); gimmee (lobsters), &c.
72. The ending of singulars in agh, aght, in, or yn, sometimes changes to eeyn; as, eaddagh (woollen cloth); eaddeeyn (woollen cloths); claddagh, singular; claddeeyn, plural; curnaght (wheat); curneeyn (wheats); skillin (a shilling); skilleeyn (shillings).
73. There are other formations of plurals in the middle of words; as, mac (a son); mec (sons).
74. Others by changing oa or o, to ui; as, doarn(a fist); duirn (fists); stoyl (a stool); stuill (stools).
75. The changing of e to i makes plural in some words; as, fer to fir, &c.