Page:An elementary grammar of the Japanese language.djvu/39

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25
Rules.
Mosi nara or naraba, if.
Tatoye nisiro or sitemo, though.
Nazenareba kara, because.

XI. When the verbs in the infinitive mood are used as nouns, they require the signs of the case; as, Niti ya watakusi no suwatte-iru koto ga yamai no moto de gozarimasu, My sitting day and night is the cause of my illness.

XII. Relative pronouns are generally omitted in conversation; as, Sore wa, watakusi ga kosirayemasita hako de gozarimasu, or Watakusi ga kosirayemasita hako wa sore de gozarimasu, That is a box which I have made. Here the relative pronoun tokorono (‘which’ or ‘that’) ought to be put between the verb kosiraye-masita and the object hako; but in conversation tokorono is not used.

XIII. Adverbs are placed before adjectives and verbs; as, Sore wa hanahada yō gozarimasu, That is very good; and Watakusi wa hayaku mairimasho, I shall go quickly.

XIV. When nouns or pronouns are compared with each other, a noun or pronoun which comes directly before the word yori or yorimo (‘than’) does not require the sign of case; as, Anata wa watakusi yori tokō gozarimasu, You are taller than I.

XV. After the names of places, ye corresponds in English to ‘to’; as, Watakusi wa Yedo ye ikimasu, I