ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORITIES
ABUDARHAM. David son of Joseph Abudarham (or Abudrahim), of Seville, wrote a Commentary on the Prayer Book in the year 1340. The first edition appeared in Lisbon, 1489; it has often been reprinted.
AMRAM son of Sheshna, the Gaon, head of the Sura School. The date of his birth is uncertain; he died about 875. Among his most important works was his Seder or Prayer Book. Amram was the first to compile a full liturgy, and his work had great influence on Synagogue usages. The extant copies of Amram's Seder contain later additions. The book was first published in Warsaw, in 1865; a new edition has been included in the Prayer Book of L. Frumkin (Jerusalem, 1912).
ASHCENAZIM. The name Ashcenaz (Genesis x. 3) was applied to Germany in the middle ages. The Ashcenazim are the Jews who use the German liturgy, which (with certain variations described as belonging to Poland) is practically the liturgy represented in the Authorised Daily Prayer Book. (The reader will observe that in the transliteration of this word, as in all other cases in these Notes, the c must be pronounced hard as in cantor.)
BAER. S. Baer, born 1830, died 1897, was a famous authority on Masorah (see below). He also compiled various liturgical works, among them his celebrated edition of the Prayer Book (Seder Abodath Israel) which appeared in Roedelheim in 1868.
COL-BO. The meaning of this word is literally All is in it. The work cited by that name is a comprehensive collection of laws and customs. It is based on earlier codifications, and probably dates from the late fourteenth century. It includes much liturgical material.
FRENCH RITE. In these notes, the French rite denotes the liturgy as found in various Manuscripts of French origin; this rite agreed in the main with the Ashcenazic, and only differed in detail.