Gaon, Gaonic age. The title Gaon, or Excellency, was given to the heads of the two Babylonian Colleges at Sura and Pumbeditha. The Gaonic age opens with the seventh century and continues till the eleventh. During a large part of that period the Gaonim exercised great authority over the whole of the Jews. (The spelling Gaonim has been used instead of Geonim for the plural of Gaon to make reference more simple.)
Genizah. The word literally means hiding, or hiding-place, with special reference to the Synagogue store-room in which were placed fragmentary and worn-out copies of various Hebrew scrolls, volumes, and documents. The Genizah often quoted in this volume is the Cairo store house, whence were derived a great mass of mediæval literary fragments.
Hamanhig. Abraham ben Nathan was named Yarḥi, i.e. of Lunel. He is often cited in these notes as Yarḥi or Ibn Yarḥi. He lived in the second part of the twelfth century, and his book Ha-manhig (the Guide) contains much liturgical information.
Kabbalah, literally tradition. The word is specifically applied to mystical doctrines and literature. These doctrines and works had considerable influence on Jewish liturgy at various periods. One of the chief literary products of the Kabbalah is the Zohar, a work compiled at the end of the thirteenth century.
Karaites. The followers of Anan (eighth century), who rejected the Rabbinic traditions, were named Karaites, because they rested their practices exclusively on the Bible (Kera or mi-kra, from Kara to pronounce, or read).
Landshuth. L. Landshuth was born in 1817 and died in 1887. He was the author of several liturgical works. The book often referred to in these notes was the Prayer Book called Siddur Hegyon-Leb, published in 1845 with notes by Hirsch Edelmann and additions by Landshuth, after whom the whole work is commonly cited.
Maharil. Jacob son of Moses Molin, called Maharil (1365-1427). The work cited as Maharil is a record