Page:Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1900, volume 5).djvu/449

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it was removed to Philadelphia. From 1855 till his death he officiated as pastor of a congregation in Chambersburg. The degree of D. D. was given him in 1845 by Marshall college. He published “Die deutsche Kanzel,” a collection of German sermons (Chambersburg, 1845); “The Burning of Chambersburg” (Philadelphia, 1865); and “Mercersburg Theology” (1874).

SCHNEIDER, George, banker, b. in Pirmasens, Rhenish Bavaria, 13 Dec., 1823. He was educated in the schools of his native place, became a journalist at the age of twenty-one, and, after taking an active part in revolutionary movements, came to this country in July, 1849. He established the “Neue Zeit” in St. Louis, Mo., and afterward removed to Chicago, where, in 1861, he was appointed collector of internal revenue. He was subsequently president of the State savings institution till 1871, when he became president of the National bank of Illinois. He was a delegate to the Republican national conventions of 1856 and 1860, presidential elector on the Garfield ticket in 1880, and for a short time in 1876 served as United States minister to Switzerland.

SCHODDE, George Henry, clergyman, b. in Alleghany City, Pa., 15 April, 1854. He was graduated at Capitol university, Columbus, Ohio, in 1872, and at its theological department in 1874, afterward studied in the universities of Tübingen and Leipsic, and in 1876 took at the latter the degree of Ph. D. In 1877 he was ordained to the Lutheran ministry in Ohio, and was pastor at Martin's Ferry, Ohio, until 1 Jan., 1880, when he was elected professor in Capitol university. He is eminent as a Semitic scholar, and has done much to promote the study of Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, Ethiopic, and other languages. He had for several years been an instructor of Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac in the Summer schools of Hebrew under Prof. William R. Harper, of Yale. He has written largely for periodicals, and in the “Bibliotheca Sacra” has published the first complete translation from the Ethiopic of the “Book of Jubilees” (1885-'7). His other works are “The Book of Enoch, translated from the Ethiopic, with Introduction and Notes” (Andover, 1882), and “A Day in Capernaum,” translated from the German of Delitzsch (New York, 1887).

SCHOELCHER, Victor (shel'-ker), French statesman, b. in Paris, 21 July, 1804; d. there, 26 Dec., 1893. He was the son of a merchant, studied at the College Louis le Grand, became a journalist, opposing the government of Louis Philippe and making a reputation as a pamphleteer. After 1826 he devoted himself almost exclusively to advocacy of the abolition of slavery throughout the world, contributing a part of his large fortune to establish and promote societies for the benefit of the negro race. In 1829-'31 he made a journey to the United States, Mexico, and Cuba to study slavery, in 1840-'2 he visited for the same purpose the West Indies, and in 1845-7 Greece, Egypt, Turkey, and the west coast of Africa. On 3 March, 1848, he was appointed under-secretary of the navy, and caused a decree to be issued by the provisional government which acknowledged the principle of the enfranchisement of the slaves through the French possessions. As president of a commission, Schoelcher prepared and wrote the decree of 27 April, 1848, which enfranchised the slaves forever. He was elected to the legislative assembly in 1848 and 1849 for Martinique, and introduced a bill for the abolition of the death-penalty, which was to be discussed on the day on which Prince Napoleon made his coup d'état. After 2 Dec. he emigrated to London, and, refusing to take advantage of the amnesties of 1856 and 1869, returned to France only after the declaration of war with Prussia in 1870. Organizing a legion of artillery, he took part in the defence of Paris, and in 1871 he was returned to the national assembly for Martinique. In 1875 he was elected senator for life. His works include “De l'esclavage des noirs et de la législation coloniale” (Paris, 1833); “Abolition de l'esclavage” (1840); “Les colonies françaises de l'Amérique” (1842); “Les colonies étrangères dans l'Amérique et Hayti” (2 vols., 1843); “Histoire de l'esclavage pendant les deux dernières années” (2 vols., 1847); “La verité aux ouvriers et cultivateurs de la Martinique” (1850); “Protestation des citoyens français negres et mulatres contre des accusations calomnieuses” (1851); “Le procès de la colonie de Marie-Galante” (1851); and “La grande conspiration du pillage et du meurtre à la Martinique” (1875).

SCHOEPF, Albin Francisco, soldier, b. in Potgusch, Hungary, 1 March, 1822; d. in Hyattsville, Md., 15 Jan., 1886. He entered the military academy at Vienna in 1837, became a lieutenant of artillery in 1841, and was promoted captain on the field for bravery. At the beginning of the Hungarian war for independence in 1848 he left the Austrian service, enlisted as a private in Louis Kossuth's army, and was soon made captain, and afterward major. After the suppression of the revolution he was exiled to Turkey, served under Gen. Jozef Bem against the insurgents at Aleppo, and afterward became instructor of artillery in the Ottoman service, with the rank of major. In 1851 he came to the United States, and received an appointment in the U. S. coast survey. In 1858 he became an assistant examiner in the patent-office. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers on 30 Sept., 1861. Gen. Felix K. Zollicoffer, after a series of successes against the Kentucky homeguards, attacked his fortified position, called Wildcat camp, on the hills of Rock Castle county, Ky., and was defeated; but the prestige thus gained for the National arms was sacrificed by Schoepf's precipitate retreat, by order of his superior officer, a few weeks later from London to Crab Orchard, which the Confederates called the “Wild-Cat stampede.” Gen. George B. Crittenden, thinking to crush Schoepf's force at Fishing creek, or Mill springs, encountered Gen. George H. Thomas's entire army, and suffered a disastrous defeat. Gen. Schoepfs brigade led in the pursuit of the enemy to Monticello. At Perryville he commanded a division under Gen. Charles C. Gilbert. He served through the war, and was mustered out on 15 Jan., 1866. Returning to Washington, he was appointed principal examiner in the patent-office, which post he continued to fill until his death.

SCHOFF, Stephen Alonzo, engraver, b. in Danville, Vt., 10 Jan., 1818. He began engraving under the direction of Oliver Pelton, of Boston, with whom he remained until he was nearly of age, subsequently passing a short time with Joseph Andrews, the engraver, in whose company in 1840 he visited Europe. There he spent about two years in Paris, studying drawing a part of the time at the school of Paul Delaroche, and perfecting himself in his art. On his return to this country he engaged in bank-note work in New York, and soon was employed upon his first important work. “Cains Marius on the Ruins of Carthage,” after Vanderlyn. This plate was issued about 1843, and to expedite its publication and aid the young artist, the master American engraver, Asher Brown Durand, engraved the head and gave some touches to the figure. Other important works from the burin of