Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/148

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BOARD

of aidermcn," “board of health,” "board or directors," "board of worl:s."

Also lodging, food. enteitainment. furnished to a guest at an ion or boarding- house.

—-Bonrd of alderman. of a municipal corporation. Oliver v. Jersey City. 63 l\. J. Law, 96, 42 Atl. 782. See AL- Di"uiiiEN.—Bunrd of audit. A trihunal pro- vided by statute in some states. to adjust and settle the accounts of municipal corporations. Ost:-rhoutlt v. Rigney, 98 N. Y. -_2.—-Board, of nivil authority. In Vermont, in the case of a city this term includes the mayor and aitiermen and justices residing therein; in the case of a town, the seler-tmen and town clerk and the justices residing therein; in the case of a village, the trustees or bailiifs and the justices residing therein. Vt. St. lb!)-.l, 19. 59.—Bonrd of directors. The governing body of a piivate corporation. generally selected from among the stockholders and constituting in effect B. com- mittee of their number or board of trustees for their intei'csts.—Boru'd, of equalization. See EQUALIZATION.—-Board of fire underwriters. As these exist in many cities, they are unincorporated voiuntsiy associations composed -exclusively of persons engaged in the business of fire insurance, having for their object consolidation and co-operation in matters affecting the business. such as the writing of uniform policies and the maintenance of uniform ratcs. Cliiids v. Insurance Co., 66 llfinn. 3‘.)3. 69 N. W. 141. 35 L. R. A. 99.—Bourd, of health. A board or commission created by the sovereign authority or by municipalities, invested with certain poweis and clisrtzed with certain duties in relation to the pres!-rvation and improvement of the public health. General boards of health are usu- ally charged with general and advisory duties, with the collection of Vital statistics, the investigation of sanitary conditions, and the methods of dcaling with epidemic and other diseases, the quarantine laws, etc. Such are the national board of health, created by act of congress of March 3, 1879. (20 St, at Large, 4&3 and the state hoards of health created by the legislatures of most of the states. Local boards of hcalth are charged with more direct and immediate means of securing the public health, and ex- ercise inquisitorial and executive powers in relation to sanitary regulations, oficnsive nuis- ances, markets, adulterution of food, slaugh- terhouscs. drains and sewers, and similar sub- jects. Such boards are constituted in most American cities eiilicr by rzcncr-ii law, hy their charters, or by municipal ordinance, and in Eilljllfiflfl by the statutes, 1] 8: 12 Vict. c. (#9, and 21 8: 22 Yict. c. 98, and other acts amending the same. See Gaines v. Watsis, 1:4 Ark. 609. 44 S. W. 3.')3.—Board of pardons. A board created by law in some states, whose function is to inves ,,ate all applications for executive clemency and to make reports and recommendations thereon to the governoc.—Bonrd of supervisors. Under the system obtaining in some of the northern states, this name is given to an organized committee, or body of oth- ci-iis, composed of delegates from the several townships in a county, constituting part of the cuuniy government, and having special charge of the revenues of the counly_—Board of trade. An organization of the principal merchants, manufacturers. tradesmen, etc., of a city, for the purpose of flll‘thOIili,-.,' its commercial interests, en('mIl“ gzing the establishment of manufactures, promoting trade. sccuiing or improving shipping faciiitics, and generally '-‘1ilV‘rllll"l|]g the prosperity of the place as an industrial and commercial community. In E land. one of the administra- five departments of government. being 11 com- mittee of the privy council which is appointcll for the consideration of matters relating to trade and foreign pinntatiuns—Board of works. The name of a board of olliccrs appointed for

The governing body

140

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the bc_tter local management of the English metropolis. They have the care and in.inageuieiit of all grounds and gardens dedicated to the Q of the inhabitants in the metropolis; also ll superintendence of the drainage; also the regr- lat_iui_i of the street tralhc, and, generally, of the buildings of the metropolis. Brown.

{{anchor+|.|BOARDER. One Who, being the inhib- itant of a place, makes a special continu with another person for food with or withlmt lodging. Berkshire Woollen Co. v. 1’ru<.Lui; 7 Cash. (1\l:i.ss.) 42-1.

One who has food and loming in the house or with the family of another for an agreed price, and usually under a contract intended to continue for a cousitlerable period of time. Ullnian v. State, 1 Tex App. 220, 28 Am. Rep. 405; Ambler v. Skinner, 7 Rah. (N. Y.) 561.

The distinction between a guest and ii boauler is this: The guest comes and remains without any bargain for time, and may go away when he pleases, paying only for the actual entertainment he receives; and the fact that he may have ieniuincd a long time in the inn, in this way, does not make him a boarder, instead of a guest. Stewart v. Mccready, 2-; How. Piac. (N. Y.) 62.

{{anchor+|.|BOARDING-HOUSE. A boarding-house is not in common parlance, or in legal meaning. every private house where one or more boarders are kept occasionally only and upon special considerations. But it is a quasi pub- lic house, where boardeis are generally and habitually kept, and which is held out and known as a place of entertainment of tbat kind. Cady v. McDowell, 1 Laos. (N. Y.) 486.

A hoarding-house is not an inn, the distinction being that a boarder is received into a house by a voluntary coiitract, whereas an innkccper. in the alisence of any reasonable or lawful exam-_ is bound to receive 41 guest when he presents himself. 2 El. & Bl. 144.

The distinction between B. hoarding-house and an inn is that in a hoarding-house the .'_.'uul is under an express contract, at a certain rate fur a certain period of time, while in an inn there is no (:}ql'l‘EE5 agicement; the guest, bcing on his way, is entertained from day to day, accurili-.,; to his business, upon an implicd contract. \‘\illard v. Reinhardt, 2 E D. Smith (N. Y.) 1-it.

{{anchor+|.|BOAT. A small open vessel, or water- craft. usually moved by oars or rowing. It is commonly distinguished in law from a ship nr vessel, iiy lJel1l.':Z of smaller size and without a dock. U. S. v. Open Boat, 5 Mason. 120, 137, Fed. Cas. N0. 15,.


{{anchor+|.|BOATABLE. A term implied in some states to minor rivers and streams capable of being navigated in small boats, shifts, or launches, though not by steam or sailing vessels. New England Trout. etc., Cluh v. Mather. GS Vt. 338, 35 .\tl. 323. 33 L. IL A. 569.

{{anchor+|.|BOC. In Saxon law. I1 deed or charter.

A book or writing:

Boo land, deed or char-