Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/207

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person to whom the dcht is due. When_ it is said that a chose in action cannot be assigned, ll means that a thing to V\lil(.'l1 it right of action is annexed cannot be transferred to another, lugi:LL|EX‘ with such right. i.5rui\.n.

Achose in action is any right to damages, whether arising from the Commission of a wit, the omission of a duty, or the breach of ii contract. Pitts v. Curtis, 4 Ala. 350; iiugee v. Toland. 8 Port. (Ala.) 40.

CHOSE IN POSSESSION. A thing in possession, as distinguished from a thing in action. Sterling v. Sims, 72 Ga. 53: Vaw- ier v. Griflm, 40 ind. 601. See CLIOSE IN Aunox. Taxes and customs, if paid, are a Ll.lU§E in possession; if unpaid, a chose in action 2 Bl. Comm. 408.

CHOSEN PREEIIOLDERS. Under the niuniupni organization of the state of New Jersey. each county has a board of officers. culled by this name, composed of represent- atives from the cities and townships within its limits, and charged with adniiuisl.ei'ing the revenues of the county They correspond to the "county cominissloners" or "superilsors' in other states.

CHOUT. In Ilindu law. A fourth, a fourth part of the sum in litigation. The 'iliahratta chout" is a fourth of the rere- nues exacted as tribute by the M-ahrattas.

CHRENEGRUDA. Under the Saiic law. ‘ibis was a ceremony performed by a person who was too poor to pay his debt or flue, whereby he applied to a rich relative to pay it for him. it consisted (after certain pre~ lirulnarles) in throwing green herbs upon the puity, the effect of which “as to bind him to pay the whole demand.

CHRISTIAN. Pertaining to Jesus Christ or the religion founded by him: professing Christianity. The adjective is also used in EL'i'IS9S more remote from its original meaning. ihus a "court (‘hrLstian" is an ccclesiiisticiil court: a "Christian name" is that conferred upon a person at baptism into the ‘Christian church. As a noun, it signifies one who accepts and professes to live by the doctrines and principles of the Christian religion. Hale v. Everett. 53 N. H. 53. 16 Am. Rep. W. State v. Buswell, 40 Neh. 158, 58 N. W. 71% 2-1 L. [L A. 63.

—Ghri:tia.n name. The baptismai name dis- uuct from the surname. Strniton v. Foster. 11

lb 467. It has been said from the bench that Ill'lIi'iSLll1.D name may consist of a single letter. lflarton.

CHRISTIANITATIS GURIA. The court Christian An ecclesiastical court, as op- inled to a civil or lay tribunal. Cowall

CHRISTIANITY. The religion founded Iilnl esiabii-shed by Jesus Christ. Hale V. Everett 53 N. H. 9. 54. 16 Am Rep. 82; Peo-



ple v. Buggies. 8 Johns. (N. Y.) 297. 5 Am. Dec. 33.3.

Concerning the maxim that Christianity is a port of the common L1“, or of the law of the land. see State v. Uhuutlicr. :7. liar. (lJel.) 552.1; Boaifl of Education v. Minor, 26 Uluu bl. '_'.ll, 13 Am. Rep. ' , Vidal v. Girard, 2.‘, Llow. 127. 11 ‘ . 20.); Updegraph v. Cumin. a Serg. it It. (Pa.) 394; hiohuey v. Cook. JG i’a. 3&2, 67 Am. Dec. 419; Liudenmuller v. People. .53 lsarh. N. Y.) 548; Box v. Wouisbun, 2 strange. 83-i; loom v. Richards, 2 Uhio St. 3.57; City Council v. Be-nj‘miu, 2 Strob. (S. C.) 503, -19 Am. Dec. 6023’; htate v. Bott, 31 La. Ann. 6133.

3 Am. itep. 224; State v. iiallock, 1U Dev.


CIIRISTMAS-DAY. A festival of the Christian church, ohseried on the 25th of Deueinher. in memoiy of the hii'tl.i of Jesus Christ.

CHURCH. in its most general sense, the religious society founded and estiihlislied by Jesus Christ. to receive, preserve, and propa- gate his doctrines and ordinances.

A body or community of Christians. united under one form of government by the profession of the same faith, and the observ- ance of the same ritual and ceremonies.

The term may denote either a society of persons who. profes~nng Christianity, hold certain doctrines or Observances which diEl"erentiate them from other like groups, nud who use a common discipline, or the building in which such persons habitually assemble for public worship. Baker v. i4‘.ilcs, 11; Mass. 498; Tate v. Liii‘vl‘ell(‘6. 11 Iieisk. ('i‘enn.) 531; In re Ziuzow, iS Misc. Rep. 653. -13 N. Y. Surlli. 714: Neale v. St. P.iui's Church. 8 Gill (l\id.) 116; Gati v. Greer. S3 Ind. 122 45 Am. liep. 4-1U; Josey v. Trust 00.. 106 GR. 608, 32 S E. 628.

The body of commiinicnnts gathered into church order, according to estahlislicil usazc in auv tovin. parish. piecinct, or religious sncicly. established according to law, and aituaily mnnccted and associated therevnih for religimis purposes, for the time being, is to be regarded as the church of such society, as to all questions of property depending upon that relation. Sigh- bins \. Jeniiings, 10 Pick. (Mass) 1:13.

A congregmionni church is a voluntary associ- ation of Christians united for discipiino and woi-ship._co'nnccted with, and fonning 21 part of,

some religious society. having a legal existence. Anderson v. Brock, 3 Me. 2-58.

In English ecclesiasticai law. An institution established by the law of the iaiid in reference to religion 3 Staph. Comm. 54. The word "church" is said to mean. in strict- ness. not the material fabric, but the cure of souls and the right of tithes. 1 Mod. 201. —Clmi-ch building nets. Statutes passed in England in and sincn the year 1318, with the object of extending the accommodation aiforded by the national church. so as to make it more commensurate Viilli the wants of the people 3 Ste-ph. Comm. 15‘I'r1l3l.—Chnrch discipline act. The statute 3 & 4 \'ict. c. 86, containing regulations for trying clerks in holy orders charged with offenses against ecclesiastical law. and for enforcing sentences pronounci-vd in such cases. Phiiiim_ Eco. Law. I31-i.—-Church of Eng (1. The church of En;,'i.ind is a distinct branch of Christ's church, and is also an insti-