tution of the state, (see the firet clause of May- nci (.‘-‘hm-2a,) of which the sovereign is the su- preme bend by act of parliament, (26 Hen. VIII. c. 1,) but in what sense is not agreed. The sovereign must he a member of the cburch, and eveiy subject is in theory a member. Wharton. Pawlct v. Clark, 9 Crunch, W, 3 L. Ed. 735. —Chnrcli rate. In English law. A sum assessed for the repair of parochial churches by the represeniatives of the parishioners in restry assemblcd.—Chu.i-ch reeve. A church warden; an overseer of a church. Now obsoiete. Cowell —Ghnrcli-soot. In old English law. Custom- ary obligations paid to the parish priest; from which duties the relifious sometimes purchased an exemption for themselves and their tenants. --Church was-dens. A species of ecclesiastical oiliceis who are intrusted with the care and guardianship of the church building and property. These, with the rector and vestry, represent the parish in its corporate mipacity.-—Church- yard. Sec Cannrnar.
GI-IURCHESSET. In old English law. A certain portion or measure of wheat, ancient- ly paid to the church on St. Martins day; and which, according to Fietzl, was paid as well In the time of the Britons as of the English. l~‘let.i. lib. 1. c. 47, § 28.
CHURL. In Saxon law. A freeman of inferior rank, chiefly employed in husbandry. 1 Reeve, Eng. Law, 5. A tenant at will of tree condition, who held land from a thane, on condition of rents and services. Cowell See Ci:oaL.
GI. Fr. So: here. Cl Diciu vous eydc, so help you God. 05 devout, heretofore. Oi lzicn, as well.
GIBARIA. Lat. In the civil law. victuals. Dig. 34, 1.
OIGATRIX. In medical jurisprudence. A scar; the mark left in the flesh or skin after the healing of a wound, and having the appearance of a seam or of a ridge of flesh.
CINQUE PORTS. l-‘Five (now seven) ports or havens on the south-east coast of En — land, towards 1<‘rance, formeily esteemed the most important in the kingdom They ai'e Dover, Sandwich. ltouiney, ilastings, and Hythe, to which Wincheisea and Rye have been since added. They had similar fracnhises, in some respects, with the counties piiiritine, and p.irticulariy an exclusive juris- diction (befoie the mayor and jiirats, corresponding to sldernien, of the ports.) in which the l.lng's ordinary writ did not run. 3 BL Comm. 79.
The 18 & 19 Vict. c. 48, (amended by 20 6: 21 Vict. c. 1.) abolishes all jurisdiction and anl;hoi'ity or the lord warden of the Cinque Ports and constable of Dover Castle, in or in relation to the administration of justice in actions, suits, or other civil proceedings at law or in equity.
G11-‘PI. An old English law term for the stocks, an instrument in nhich the wrists or ankles of petty offenders were confined.
CIRCUIT COURTS OF APPEALS
CIRGADA. A tribute anclently paid to the bishop or archbishop for visiting churLhes. Du Frcsne.
GIRGAR. In Hindu law. Head of at- fairs; the state or governnieut; a grand di- vision of a province; a headman. A mine used by Europeans in Bengal to denote the Hindu writer and accountant einployed by themselves, or in the public offices. Wharton.
CIRCUIT. A division of the country, appointed for a particular judge to visit for the trial of causes or for the adiniiiistiatiou of Justice. Bouvier.
Circuits, as the term is used in Emlnnd, may be otherwise defined to be the period- ical progresses of the judges of the supeilor courts of common law, through the seiernl counties of England and Wales, for the purpose of administering civil and criminal justice —Circu.it judge. The judge of a circuit court Crozier r. Lyons, 72 Iowa, 401, 34 N. W. 130. —Circuit justice. In federal law and practice. The justice of the supreme court who ll allotted to a given circuit. U. S. O:-mp. St 1901, p. 4S('i.—Ciruu.it paper. In iuitish practice. A paper containing a statement of the time and place at wblch the several assises will be held, and other statistical information connected with the assises. Holthouse.
GIIRCUIT GOITRTS. The name of II system of courts of the United States, in- vested with general original jurlsdlctiou of such matters and causes as are of Federal cognizance, except the matters specially del- egated to the district courts.
The United States circuit courts are held by one of the justices of the supreme court ap pointed for the circuit, (and hearing the nan 9, in that capacity, of vii-civil ju..s'tiI:c,) together witb the circuit judge and the district judgn of the district in which they are_held. Their limi- ness is not only the supervision of trials of issues in fact, but the bearing of causes as a court in bone; and they have equity as well an common-law jurisdiction, together with awe!- late jurisdiction from the decrees and juilgmmn of the district courts. 1 Kent, Comm. 301—§)Z&
In several of the states. circuit court in the name given to a tribunal, the territorial jurisdiction of which comprises several counties 01' districts, and whose sessions are livid in such counties or districts alternately. These courts usually have general original jurisdiction. In re Johnson. 12 Kan. 102.
CIRCUIT COURTS OF APPEALS. A system of courts or the United States (one in each circuit) created by act of congress of March 3, 1891 (U. S. Comp. St; 1901, 1). N11, composed of the circuit justice, the circuit judge, and an additional circuit judge ap~ pointed for each such court, and having ap
pellate jurisdiction from the circuit and district courts except in certain specified dasses of cases.