Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/299

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COURT OF PRIVATE LAND

upon the thorough reduction of that princi- paiity and the settling of its polity in the reign of Henry 1-'iII., were erected all over the country. These courts, however. have Icon abolished by 1 “'ni. IV. c. 70: the principality being now divided into two cir- cuits, which the judges visit in the same manner as they do the circuits in England, for the purpose of disposing of those causes which are ready for trial. Brown.

COURT OF PRIVATE LAND CLAIMS. A federal court created by act of Congress in 191 (26 Stat 854 [U. S. Comp. St. 1901, p. 755]), to hear and determine claims by prlnilc parties to iauds within the public duiiinln, where such claims originated under Hpiiilsh or Mexican grants, and had not al- ri-ad_\' licen confirmed by Congress or other- uhr udjullicllted. The existence and au- l|lI:ll'll_V of tlils court were to cease and determine at the end of the year 1895.

COURT OF PROBATE. In English law. The name of a court established in I£'iT. under the probate act of that year, (20 & 2i \‘ict. 24 77,‘; to be held in London, to wlieh court was transferred the testamen- iiiry jurisdiction of the ecclesiasticai courts. 2 Steph. Fonim. 192. By the jildicatnre nus. this court is merged in the high court of justice.

In American law. A court having ju- risdiction over the probate of wills, the grant of administration, and the supervi- aim of the management and settlement of the estates of decedents. including the collection of assets, the allowance of claims, and the distribution of the estate. In some states the probate courts also have juris- diition of the estates of minors, including the appointment of guardians and the settlelucnt of their accounts, and of the eslines of lunatics, hnhitual drunkards, and .-apwndthrifts. And in some states these courts possess a limited jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. They are also called "orphans courts" and “surrogates courts.”

COURT OF QUARTER SESSIONS OF THE PEACE. In American law. A court nr criuihial Jurisdiction In the state of Penn- .kl‘lU1lli£l. huriii, power to try misdemean- ors. und exei-eisin: certain functions of an aliuilnistrative nature. There is one such court in each county of the state. Its si s- ‘lI’(lS ale, in general. held at the slime time sun‘ hr the same Judges as the court of Ivrv rlml It-rnliiwr and general jail (iCH'L€’1‘,1I. ice Bi-'.'htly‘s Purd. Dig. pp. 26, 383, § 35, p. lllfi, § 1.

COURT OF QUEEN'S BENCH. Kli\‘u'E BENCH.

See

COURT 0}‘ RECORD. See COURT, au- lira.

291

COURT OF STAR CHAMBER

COURT OF REGARD. In English law. One of the forest courts, in England. iieid el ery third year, for the lawing or eSp(‘.(]il'El— tiou of dogs. to prevent them from running

after deer. It is now oil-solete. 3 Steph. Comm. 440; 3 Bl. Comm. 71, T2. COURTS O1‘ REQUEST. Inferior

courts, in England, having local jurisdiction in claims for slnaii debts, established in various parts of the kingdom by special acts of pariiament. They were abolished in 1846, and the modern county courts (q. 12.) took their place. 3 Steph. Comm. 283.

COURT OF SESSION. The name of the highest court of civil jurisdiction in Heat- land. It “as composed of fifteen judges, now of thirteen. It sits in t“D (1i\iSIu'l'\S. The lord plesidcnt and three ordinary lords form the fiist division; the lord Justice clerk and three other ordinary lorll>= form the slv - ond dirision. There are five permanent lords ordinary attached equally to bolli di- visions; the last appointed of whom offici- ates on the hills, I. c., petitions preferred to the court during the session, and performs lhe other duties of Junior lord orillnary. The chambers of the pariiament home in nhich the first and second diiisicns hold their sittings are called the "inner house :" those in which the lords ordinary sit as singie jlldzes to hear motions and causes are collectively called the “outer house." The nomination and appointment of the judges is in the crown. Wharton.

COURT OF SESSIONS. (‘ourte of C1'll.n- lnni Jurisdiction existing in California. New Yorir, and one or two other of the United States.

COURT OF STANNABJES. In Eng- iish law. A court estubiisherl in Devonshire and Cornwall, for the administration of justice among the miners and tinners, and that they may not be drawn away from their business to attend suits in distant courts. The stannary court is a court or record, with a special jurisdiction. 3 Bl. Comm. 79.

COURT OF STAR CHAMBER. This was an English court of very ancient origin. hut new-modeled by St. 3 Lien. VII. c. 1, and 21 Ben. VIII. c. 20, consisting of divers lords, spiritual and temporal, helng pi-in counciilois, together with tvio judges of the courts of conimon law, without the intervention of any jury. The jurisdiction extended legally over riots. perjury, misbehavior of sherltfs, and other niisriemezmors contrary to the laws of the land: yet it was after- wards stretched to the asserting of all proc- lamations and orders of state, to the vindicating of illegal commissions and grants of nlolmpolies; holding for honnrahie that which it pieased, and for just that which it profited, and becoming both a court of law

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