Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/299

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court of private land 291 court of star chamber

upon the thorough reduction of that principality and the settling of its polity in the reign of Henry VIII., were erected all over the country. These courts, however, have been abolished by 1 Wm. IV. c. 70; the principality being now divided into two circuits, which the judges visit in the same manner as they do the circuits in England, for the purpose of disposing of those causes which are ready for trial. Brown.

court of private land claims. A federal court created by act of Congress in 1891 (26 Stat. 854 [U. S. Comp. St. 1901, p. 765]), to hear and determine claims by private parties to lands within the public domain, where such claims originated under Spanish or Mexican grants, and had not already been confirmed by Congress or otherwise adjudicated. The existence and authority of this court were to cease and determine at the end of the year 1895.

court of probate. In English law. The name of a court established in 1867, under the probate act of that year, (20 & 21 Vict. c. 77,) to be held in London, to which court was transferred the testamentary jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts. 2 Steph. Comm. 192. By the judicature acts, this court is merged in the high court of justice.

In American law. A court having jurisdiction over the probate of wills, the grant of administration, and the supervision of the management and settlement of the estates of decedents, including the collection of assets, the allowance of claims, and the distribution of the estate. In some states the probate courts also have jurisdiction of the estates of minors, including the appointment of guardians and the settlement of their accounts, and of the estates of lunatics, habitual drunkards, and spendthrifts. And in some states these courts possess a limited jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. They are also called "orphans' courts" and "surrogate's courts."

court of quarter sessions of the peace. In American law. A court of criminal jurisdiction in the state of Pennsylvania, having power to try misdemeanors, and exercising certain functions of an administrative nature. There is one such court in each county of the state. Its sessions are, in general, held at the same time and by the same judges as the court of oyer and terminer and general jail delivery. See Brightly's Purd. Dig. pp. 26, 383, § 35, p. 1198. § 1.

court of queen's bench. See King's Bench.

court of record. See Court, supra.

court of regard. In English law. One of the forest courts, in England, held every third year, for the lawing or expeditation of dogs, to prevent them from running after deer. It is now obsolete. 3 Steph. Comm. 440; 3 Bl. Comm. 71, 72.

court of request. Inferior courts, in England, having local jurisdiction in claims for small debts, established in various parts of the kingdom by special acts of parliament. They were abolished in 1846, and the modern county courts (q. v.) took their place. 3 Steph. Comm. 283.

court of session. The name of the highest court of civil jurisdiction in Scotland. It was composed of fifteen judges, now of thirteen. It sits in two divisions. The lord president and three ordinary lords form the first division; the lord justice clerk and three other ordinary lords form the second division. There are five permanent lords ordinary attached equally to both divisions; the last appointed of whom officiates on the bills, i. e., petitions preferred to the court during the session, and performs the other duties of junior lord ordinary. The chambers of the parliament house in which the first and second divisions hold their sittings are called the "inner house;" those in which the lords ordinary sit as single judges to hear motions and causes are collectively called the "outer house." The nomination and appointment of the judges is in the crown. Wharton.

court of sessions. Courts of criminal jurisdiction existing in California, New York, and one or two other of the United States.

court of stannaries. In English law. A court established in Devonshire and Cornwall, for the administration of justice among the miners and tinners, and that they may not be drawn away from their business to attend suits in distant courts. The stannary court is a court of record, with a special jurisdiction. 3 Bl. Comm. 79.

court of star chamber. This was an English court of very ancient origin, but new-modeled by St. 3 Hen. VII. c. 1, and 21 Hen. VIII. c. 20, consisting of divers lords, spiritual and temporal, being privy councillors, together with two judges of the courts of common law, without the intervention of any jury. The jurisdiction extended legally over riots, perjury, misbehavior of sheriffs, and other misdemeanors contrary to the laws of the land; yet it was afterwards stretched to the asserting of all proclamations and orders of state, to the vindicating of illegal commissions and grants of monopolies; holding for honorable that which it pleased, and for just that which it profited, and becoming both a court of law