Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/439

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EPISCOPACY

EPISCOPACY. The office of overlooking or oveiseeing; the office of a bishop, who is to overlook and oversee the concerns of the church. A form of church government by diocesan bishops. Trustees of Diocese of Central New York v. Colgrove, 4 Hun (N. Y.) Jflili.

EPISCOPALIA. In ecclesiastical law. Syiiodiils. pentecostnis, and other customary payments from the clergy to their diocesan bishop, formeriy collected by the rural deans. Cowell.

EPISCOPALIAN. Of or pertaining to episcopacy, or to the Episcopal Ciiurch

I-JPISCOPATE. A lilshopric. The dignity or oiiice or a bishop.

EPISCOI-‘US. In the civil law. All ulerseer; an inspector. A muiilcipul officer who had the charge and oversight of the bread and other provisions whlch served the citizens for their daily food. Vicat.

In medieval history. A bishop; a bishop of the Christian church. —}}piscopus pnerorlun. It was an old custom that upon certain fe-ists some lay person should plait his hair, and put on the garments of a bishop, and in them pretend to exercise episcopal jurisdiction, and do several ludicrous actions, for which reason he was called "bishop of the boys :" and Lliis custom obtained in Ime- liind long after several constitutions were made to abolish it. Biount.

Episcopus alter-his rnanrlato qnnrn re- gis non tenetur obtemperare. Co. Litt. 134. A bishop needs not obey any mandate save the liing’s.

Episcopus tenelst plncitlun, in curia. oh:-istianitotis, do fin quiz mere Innt spit-itualia. 12 Coke, 4-1. A Iiishop may hold plea in a Court Christian of things merely spirltiiai.

EPISTOLA. A latte a charter; nn Instrument in writing for conveyniice of lands

or assurance of contracts. Calvin; Spel- man. EPISTOLE. In the civil law. Rescrlpts;

opinions given by the euiperors in cases sub- united to them for decision.

Answers of the emperors to petitions.

The answers or counsellors, (iuri‘s—cmisul- H.) as Ulpian and others, to questions of law proposed to them, were also called “c1ii‘.~2i'ola2."

Opinions written out The term originally signified the same as meraz. Vicat

EPOCH. The time at which a new computation is begun; the time whence dates are numbered. Eric. Loud.

EQUAL. Alike: uniform; on the same plane or level with respect to efiiciency,

431

EQUALIZATION

worth value, n.uJounI;, or rights. People v. llulfnian, 116 I11. 587, 5 N. E. 000, 56 Am. Rep. 793.

—Equal and uniform taxation. Taxes are said to be "equal and uniform" when no pt-is a or class of persons in the taxing district, whether it be a suite. county, or city, is taxed at a different rate than are niher persons in the same district upon the same vnlue or the same thing, and where the objecls of taxation are the same, by whriuisueler onncd oi wli-ilsoei-er they may lie. i\uriis v. W 1. 57 Tex. 6-ll: People v, Whyior, -ll ‘ai The Railroad Tax Cases (C. C.) . T3 Uttaxia Loiinty V Nelson, 19 Kim. .‘.’3‘l.—Equi3.l degree. Persons are siiid to be ii-lated lo a decedent "in equal degree" when tlirv are all removed by an equal number of ste cross from the common uuuzslur.

lli'_L'ius. 21 N. J. E]. 102: IIUIIJIBS v, BE) ‘l‘(nn. 4:16. 14 S. \l'. 930. 10 L. R. —].-Tqnal protection of the laws. equni protection of the laus of a slate is extended to persons within its jl.il'lS(litfi()lJ, with- in the meaning of the constitutional requiremcnt, \Till-El ils courts are open to them on the same conditions as to olliers. vxith like rules of evidence and modes of procerlure, for the security of their persons and pi-uppity, the prevention and rerlrrss of wrrmes, and the en- forceinent of ('O'[Itl‘f‘lClS; when thev [ire subjected to no restrictions in the nrqiusition of prop- erty, the enjoyment of pBl‘s0l.lnl liiierty, and the pursuit of happiness, which do not generally alfr-ct others: when they are liable to no (lill(‘I' or greater burdens and charges than such us are laid upon others; and when no (lIffi‘i‘PlJl


or irre-itcr punishment is enforced acninst ihr-in ' 5 fit!‘ v. l\innt- St,

for a violation of the lows.

omi=r_v. 94 Me. 192. 47 All 16 90 Am.

And see Duncan v. lllissnuri. _ . 14 Sup. Ct. 570. 39 L. Pd. -1


. ; (‘ntting v, C

. "1" S‘ . Ct. 30. 445 L Frl “tote Ihnril .. Central R. n. 9 X. J Law.

. : i\Iinnc:ipolis & St. L. R. (‘O

. 129 U. S. 26. 9 Sup. Ct. 207. 32

L Ed. .735.

EQUALITY. Tiie comlitiou of [ms -1-ssing

the szune lights. privile-,:cs, and iiiiiuunities, and being liable to the same duties.

Equality 15 equity. Fran. Max. 9, max. 3. Thus, where an heir buys in an incum- hrauce for less than is due upon it. (except it be to protect an incumbrance to which he himself is entitled.) he shall be niioueil no more than what he really paid for it, as agnnist other lncuunlirnncers upon the estate. 2 Vent. 353; 1 Vern. 49; 1 Salli. 155.

EQUALIZATION. The nct or process of making equal or liiiuging about conformity to a common standard. The process of equalizing assessments or taxes, as performed by "boiirds of equ.-ili7.at_i(in" in various states, consists in comparing the assessments made by the local ofhcers of the various counties or other taxing districts within the jurisdiction of the l)oni'l:l and reducing them to 51 common and uniform basis. increasing or diminishing by such percentage as may he necessary, so as to bring about, within the entire territory nffected, a uniform and equal ratio between the assessed vaiue and the


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