Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/691

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nn_d_all plcns and causes whatsoever therein arising. 3 Comm. 72-. nst. 2. : 3 Staph Comm. 4-i:0.—-Justices of appeal. The title given to the ordinary judges of the oglisli court of appeal. The mat of such oriliu. ‘y judilzes arc the two former lords justices of ap- nea in channery, and one other jiid,-zc appointed by the crown by letters patent. Jud. Act 1875. § -i.—Jristices of assize. These justices. or, as thcy are soinerimcs called. “justices of nisi ]n‘1'Ila'," are judges of the superior English c«iiii'ts, who .-go on circuit into the various counties of England and Wales for the purpose of disposing of such causes as are ready for tii-il at the assizes. Sec ASslZE.—Justices of gnol delivery. Those justices who are spot with a commission to hear and determine all causes appertaining to persons, who, for any oil‘:-use. have been cast into 2:101. Part of their authority was to punish those who let to maiuprise those prisoners who were not hiiiluble by low, and their seem formerly to have lu-D11 sent into the country upon this exclusive occasion, but afterwards had the same authority given them as the justices of :1. ize. Brown.—Justice| of laborers. In old Eng- Iish law. Justices appointed to redress the fro- irarducss of laboring men, who would either he 'le or have unreasonable wages. Bloom- Justines of nisi pt-iris. In English law. 'l‘his title ls now usually coupled with that of justices of oasizc; the judges of the superior courts acting on their circuits in both these ca- pacities. 3 Com. 58. 59.—-Justices of oyer and terrnlner. Certain persons appointed by the king"s commission, among whom were usuiilly two judges of the courts at West- minster, and who went twice in evcry vent to eiery county of the kingdom. (except London and Middn-sex.) and. at what was usually call- ed the “assizt-s." heard and determined all trnnsous, felonies, and misdemeanors. Brown. —Juiitices of the bench. The justices of lhe (‘l\Ill"t of common l.)Dl’lCll or common pleiis.—-Jiistices of the forest. In old Flnszlisli law. officors who had jurisdiction over iili offenses committed Within the forest a.-zainst Tert or ronisnn. The court wherein these justices sat nud determined such causes was culled the “instlcc scat of the forest." They were also some- linies called the "justiccs in eyre of the forest." I?rown.—-Justices of the hundred. Hun- 'lI‘Clll3l‘SI lnrzls of the hundreds: lhcy who hnd the jurisdiction of hiintlrcrls and held the hun- -lrcd courts.——Justices of the Jews. Justices tiiipninlcd by Riclianl I. to carry into etfcct lbe lows and orders which he had mode for rr-_n1ilntins: the l"nI’lI?Il.’_V contracts of the Jews. Brown. —J‘nsti'iues of the pavilion. In old English lair. .lud_es of a nrnpmvder court, of H must rransccuilant jiiriszliciion, ancicntlv authorized hv the liishon of \’l'inchester. at a fair hcld on s. Giles‘ iiius near tliatcit.V- Cowcli: Rlmmt. —J‘ustii:es of the quorum. See Qooumu. —-Iustlces of trail-haston. In old Eiislish l'lW. A kind of justices appointed by King EI‘l“fll'lI I. upon occasion of great disordcis in the rcnliii, during his ahscnce in the Scotch and French wars. They were a kind of justices in evre. \\ltl.\ great powers adapted to the emergency, and which they exercised in a summary manner. Cowell; Blouut.

JUSTICE OF THE PEACE. In American Law. A judicial officer of inferior ruin]: holding a court not of record, and having (usually) civil jurisdiction of :1 limited nature, for the triai of minor cases, to an extent prescribed by statute, and for the conscri-atiou of the peace and the preliminary hearing of criminal complaints and the comiuitinent of oEl'euders. See Wenzler v. Peo- ple, 58 N. Y. 530: Com. v. F‘i'anl:, 21 Pa. Co. Ct. IL 120; Weilcel v. Cate. 58 Md. 110;



Smith v. Alihott, 17 N. J. Law, 366; People V. Moon. 07 N. 1'. 530, 49 Am. Rep. 555.

1'“ English law. Judges of record up D0"‘t_9d 1'! the crown to be justices wlthin a certain district, (e_. g.. a counLv or borough.) for the conservation of the peace, and for the €X(‘(1ll[IOL\ of divers things. comprehended within their commission and within di- vers slatutcs. committed to their charge. Stone, J. Pr. 2.

JUSTICES counrs. Inferior tribunals. not of record, with iimited jurlsdiction, both civil and criminal, held by justices of ‘"119 Deuce. There are courts so calied in 11311115’ Of the states. See Scarl v. Shanks, 9 N- D- 204. S2 N. W. 73-1; Brownfieid V. Thompson, 96 Bio. App. 340, 70 S. W. 378.

JUSTIQEMENTS. An old general term for all things appertaining to justice.

JUSTIGEE. The old form of justice. Blount.

JUSTIGESI-IIP. Bank or office of a justice. JUSTIGIABLE. Proper to be examined

in coults of Justice.

JUSTIGIAR. In old English um. A Judge 0!‘ Justice. One of several persons 1931'"?-d 1“ the 13W, who sat in the cum regis. and formed a kind of court of appeal in (371585 of difliculty.

—_Hig'h justicier. In old French and Canndian law. ‘iA_feut_iul _lord who exercised the called high justice." Guyot, lust. Feud,

J USTIGIARII ITINERANTES. In English law. Justices in eyre, who formerly went from county to county to tiilnii ster justice. They were so called to distinguish them from justices residing at Westmii.iister, who were called "jusli'ci'i residcntes." Co. Litt. 29:3.

.iUs'rIcIA1u1 RESIDENTES. In English law. Justices or judges who usually resided in “'cstiuinister. Zlhey were so call- ed to distinguish them from justices in eyre. C0. Litt. 293.

JUSTICIARY- An old name for a judge or justice. The word is formed on the miniogy of the Latin “justi.cia.r-ins" and French “j-u.s'ti'cicr."

JUSTIGIARY counr. The Chief crim- lnal court of Scotland. consisting of tire ioi-as of session, added to the justice general and juslice clerk; of whom the justice general, and, in his absence, the justice cierk, is pr-(3si_ dent. This court has a jurisdiction over all

crimes, and over the whole of Scotland. Bell.