Page:Black's Law Dictionary (Second Edition).djvu/919

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regulating: titlits res%i‘i_i’:Jces, and rproductlyie prop- ery on a or. arton.-— nl tica law. Thiit liriinch of jurisprudence which treats of the science of politics, or the organization and administration of government.—l-‘uliticul liberty. Sce I..iBEu'i'Y.—Po1itical offenses. As A desdigifmtion of :3 class of ciimeshlusuaily Ex- oepte roin extra ition treaties, t ‘s term e- notes crimes which are incidental to and form ii part of political disturbances: but it rni'.:ht also be understood to include offenses consistin: in an attack upon the political order of things established in the country where com- mitted, and even to include offenscs committed to obtain any political object. 2 Stepli. Grim. Luw. 7l).—Politii:ul ofiiee. See 0rrics.—- Pollticiil questions. Questions of which the courts of justice will refuse to take cognizance. or to decide, on account of their purely political character, or because their ilcterniiniition wou involve an encroachment upon the executive or legislative powers;s. y., whnt sort of governmt-nt exists in E. state, whether peace or wnr exists, whether a foreign country has become an independent state. etc. Luther v. Borden, 7 How. 1, 12 L. Ed 1; Kenneth v. Ciianihcrs, 14 Holw.d3% 14 II“; 177;]. ‘K-33: U.1SéiV. '§29iI’]:;§k- ages. e . ns. 0. 5,.) .—Po i on 1- g 3. Those which may be exercised in the formation or fidmgistrgzionl ogeélie 1%t,J5]etl' People V. 0|‘ .1], . J" S 0 Cl ZEUS ES- tablished or recognized by constitutions which fivxe tbelm the [power ‘tJo participate dgrectly or n ire:-ty in t e esta iisirnent or a ministration of government. People v. Barrett 203 Ill. "' N. F} 742. 96 Am. St. Rep. 29

v. shington. 36 Cal. 662'. Winnett 11 lVel\. 317. 99 N, w. 684.

POLITICS. The science of government; the art or practice of administering public amiirs.

POLITY. The form of government; civil constitution.

POLL. 1:. In practice. To single out, one by one, of B nuniluer of persons. To examine each juror separately, after a verdict has iuccn givcn us to his cour‘uri'ence iii the ver-

tll(‘t 1 Burrill. Fr 1235.

POLL, n. A hand: on individual person; I register of persons. in the law of elections, a list or register of heads or individ- uals who may vote in an election; the aggregate of those who or-tnnlly cast their votes at the election, excluding those who stay away. De Soto Pzirisih v. Williams, 49 La. Ann. 422, 21 South. 647. 37 L. R. A. 761. See, also, PoLLs.

POLL, ad]. Cut or shaved smooth or erexi; cut in a straight line without indentation. A term aiiciently applied to a deed, and still used. though with little of its former significance. 2 Bl. Comm. 296.

POLL-MONEY. A tax ordained by act or psi-lismeiit. (18 Car. II. c. 1.) by which every subject in the kingdom was assessed by the head or poll, according to his degree. Cowell. A similar pnrsonal tribute was more aiiciently termed “poll-silver."

POLL-TAX. A capitation mix; a tex of I specific sum levied upon each person with-



in the jurisdiction of the taxing power and within a certain class (as. all males of a certain age. etc.) without reference to his prop- erty or lack of it See Southern Ry. Co. v. St. Clair Gonnfy. 124 Ala. 491, 27 South. 23: Short v. State, 80 Md. 391.5. 31 At]. 322, 29 L. R. A. 404: People v. Ames, 24 Colo. -122, 51 Pac. 426.

POLLARDS. A foreign coin or base met- al. prohibited by St 27 Edw. I. c. 3, from being brought into the realm, on pain or forfeiture of life and goods. 4 Bl. Comm. 98. It was computed at two pollards for a ster- ling or penny. Dyer, 82b.

POLLENGERS. Trees which have been

lopped; distinguished from timber-trees. .Plowd. 649. POLLIGITATION. In the civil law. All

otter not yet accepted by the person to whom it is made. Langd. Cont. § 1. See Mc_Culloch v. Eagle Ins. G0,, 1 Pick. (Mass) 283.

POLLIGAE, POLYGAR. In Hindu law. The head of a village or district: also a military chiettain in the peninsula, answering to a hill zemimlar in the northern circars. Wharton

POLLING THE JURY. To 11011 a jury is to require that each juror shall himself declare what is hle verdict.

POLLS. The place where electors cast in their votes.

Ileads; individuals; persons singly considered. A challenge to the polls (in rnnita) is a challenge to the liidividual jurors composing the pniiel, or an exception to one or more particular jurors. 3 Bl. Comm. 358, 361.

POLYANDRY. The civil condition of having more husbands than one to the same woman: a social order permitting plurality of husbands.

Polygainia est plnx-inn: simnl v-lrornm nxoi-umve Bolllllllbiililn. 3 Inst. $. Polygamy is the marriage with many husbands or wives at one time.

POLYGAJVIY. In criminal law. The of- tense of having several wiies or husbands at the some time, or more than one wtfe or hus- band nt the same time. 3 Inst 88. And see Reynolds v. U. S., 98 U. S. 1-15, 25 L. Ed. 214.

The octense committed by a l-iviiian in marrying while any previous wife is living and undivorced; as distinguished from big- smy in the sense of a breach of ecclesiastical law involved in any second marriage by ii clerk.

Polygamy, or bigamy, shall consist in

knowingly having a plurality of husbands or