settlonienl. Mr. Bryce took up the question in courageous fasliion during his brief chief secretary- shi]). It was left to Mr. Birrell to carry a measure granting facilities for University education under conditions fairly satisfactory to Cathohcs. The Jesuits facilitated the reform in every way and, though they might have put forward a title to special con- sideration, they sought no peculiar recognition. Cardinal Logue declared the settlement to be largely due to their lal)Ours. The Archbishop of Dublin expressed his admiration for "the fidelity, constancy, and undaunted courage" which they had shown in the enterprise. Many years before, in 1886, when jealous criticism was; afoot. Father Delany had already (Ictincd their interest to be to estabhsh "a central College, which sliould be national in its Constitution; should be governed by a body representative of the whole Catholic people, with all its interests; where the main condition of appointments to posts should be excellence of qualification, the best man winning whether priest or layman". The new constitution of the college approaches that ideal. Mr. Birrell, n'hen introducing his University Bill, bore testimony to "the patriotism" of Father Delany 's attitude, rhe passing of the University Act coincided with the silver jubilee of the old college; and when the new i^ollege came into existence the Jesuits, in order to Facilitate its commencement, surrendered to it, with the approval of the Irish bishops, the old buildings of Ihe Catholic University.
The ne%v Irish Universities Act of 1908 is based on
- he principle of the non-recognition of theological or
■eligious teaching. No part of the public endowment 'an be applied for the purpose of such teaching. But he vmiversity may recognize a theological faculty or I religious chair provided by private endowment, rhe indifferent ist principle was accepted by Irish [Catholics because the scheme of government em- bodied in the charters both for the National Univer- sity and for its constituent colleges enabled a sym- pathetic government to be established. The first senate and the first governing bodies were nominated, md the governing body of t^niversity College, Dub- in, now consists of twenty-seven Catholics and three 'rotestants. When it ceases to hold office the new
- overning body will be constituted mainly of persons
•lected by the college corporation itself, and by the jeneral Covmcil of Irish County Councils, which epresents Irish opinion. In the first appointment of leans of residence two Catholic priests were among hose appointed. They voluntarily provide religious ectures in addition to discharging the duties of their >ffice. The bishops of Ireland have also in hand 1912) a scheme for the establishment of a lectureship n theology in the college and have selected Rev. 'eter Finlay, S.J., for the office. The growth of this ide of the college work would complete its activities i-s a imiversity institution. All the other faculties ire adequately provided for, and include arts, philos- iphy, Celtic studies (including archaeology, history, md philology), science, law, medicine, and engineer- ng. The staff consists of the president (Dr. D. J. >)ffey, dean of the old successful medical school), orty-three professors, and eight lecturers. All the yrofessors of philosophy are Catholics. The public ndowment of the college is £.32,000 a year and the otal revenue in 1910-11 was £40,357. Six hundred ind ninety-five students were in attendance in that 'ear. The first plan of buildings provides for eight lundred students. One humlrcd and ten thousand lounds of public grant is available for their erection nd equipment, but it will certainly prove inadequate, ,nd must be supplemented from either public or irivate sources. So far, though the college is open to ,11, ninety-eight per cent of the students are Catholics.
tersilu Acts (1897 and 18S1); Royal Uinrrrsiti/ Calendars (1884 to 1909); Delanv, The Irish Vaiversill/ Quesliua: A pica /or Fair Play (Dublin, 1904); Parliamentary Proceedings (190S).
III. Spanish-.\merican Universitie.s. — The Uni- versity of St. Mark's at Lima enjoj-s the reputation of being the oldest in America; it has the distinc- tion of having first begun its course by royal decree. The university in Santo Domingo in the West Indies was the first to be established by a papal Bull. Other similar institutions soon arose all over Spanish America, flourishing during the colonial period, under the joint auspices of Church and State. Then, wlien the Revolution came, they passed from the direct control of the former to that of the latter, with the exception of the University of Havana, which remained in possession of a religious order until late in the nineteenth century. It was in 1.538 that a Bull of Paul III established the pontifical University of St. Thomas in Santo Domingo, at the request of the Dominicans. However, the institution was not definitively established, until Philip II gave it legal existence in 1558, seven years after the foundation of St. Mark's in Peru. The University of Santo Do- mingo had faculties of theology, jurisprudence, philos- ophy, and medicine, and lasted throughout the colo- nial period. The University of Lima was founded by decree of Charles V in 1551 in the monastery of the Holy Rosary, remaining under the direction of the Dominicans until 1571, when, being confirmed by Pope Pius V, it passed into the hands of .seculars. The Dominicans still continued, however, to occupy posts of honour. For centuries the university exercised an influence that spread over all the colonies of Spain in South America, and many eminent men went out from its lecture-rooms. The renowned Pedro Peralta and the French savant, Godin, were among its professors in the eighteenth century, while such men as the poets Oiia, Castellanos, and Olmedo, and the first American bibhographer, Leon Pinelo, were among its students. The faculties of the uni- versity included theologj', jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, and, for a time, the language of the Incas. The next in importance of the Peruvian universities was that of Cuzco, founded, in 1598, as the University of San Antonio Abad. In the seventeenth century the University of Guamanga in Peru was established with the same faculties as that of Cuzco. In the meantime, university studies had been inaugurated at Quito with the establishment, in 1586, of the University of San Fulgencio, under the Augustinian fathers, by a Bull of Sixtus V. A second University of Quito, the one which gained the greatest prom- inence in the colonial period, was that of St. Greg- ory the Great, founded by the Jesuits in 162(). The early seventeenth century was a period of con- siderable literary activity and educational work in Spanish America, and .several universities were founded. In 1627 the Dominic.ans succeeded in establishing their royal and pontifical University of Santo Tomas, at Santa Fe de Bogota, while the Jesuits continued their old College of San Luis, founded in 1.592, as the Xaverian University. The University of Santo Tomas obtained renown through such eminent jurists a.s Luis Brochero, and such Unguists as the Dominican, Bernardo de Lugo. The celebrated historian of New Granada, Fern;Sndez de Piedrahita, Bi.shop of Panama, was a doctor of this university.
The Jesuits arrived in Chile in 1.593 and at once inaugurated liigher studies with chairs of philos- ophy and theology. However, the honour of foimd- ing the first university in Santiago belongs to the Dominicans. It was established in the Monastery of the Holy Rosar\', under the title of Santo Tomas in 1619, by a Bull of Paul V, that permitted its existence for ten y<'ai"S. In 1684 its privileges were renewed by Innocent XI for a period to last