until Santiago should possess a public university. The faculties included logic, history, mental philoso-
f'hy, physics, mathematics, canon law, and theology, n the meantime, as early as 1621, the Jesuits had obtained from Pope Gregory XV the Bull "In emi- nenti" which granted the privilege of conferring degrees for ten years. This privilege was renewed by Urban VIII for another ten years, and finally granted without limitation in 1634. There were thus two pontifical universities in Santiago. Finally, in the first half of the eighteenth century, Santiago beheld the foundation of its Royal University of San Felipe by a decree of Philip IV in 1738, with chairs of theology, canon and civil law, mathematics, cos- mography, anatomy, medicine, and Indian language. About the time that the Jesuit and Dominican univer- sities were established at Santiago, Charcas, in Upper Peru, now Bolivia, beheld a university arise in that of St. Francis Xavier, founded in 1623. This became one of the most famous in the New World. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, however, the spirit of this university had gi'own to be quite anti-clerical. Yet it produced a number of distinguished men, such as Mariano Moreno, Bernardo Monteagudo, Jos6 Ignacio Gorriti, and Jos6 Mariano Serrano. In 1622 the Jesuit college at C6rdoba del Tucumdn, foimded a few years earlier in what is now the Argen- tine Repubhc, was rai.sed to the rank of a university by a Bull of Gregory XV and a decree of Philip III. After the expulsion of the Jesuits, it passed for a brief period to the Franciscans, until towards the end of the eighteenth century it was taken over by seculars. Two universities were established in the eighteenth century, the one in Venezuela, the other in Cuba. In 1722 the old seminary of Santa Rosa, founded at Caracas by Don Diego de Banos y Sotomayor, was raised to the rank of a royal and pontifical university by a decree of Philip V and a Bull of Innocent XIII, the faculties of civil law and medicine being added to those that already existed. The year before the granting of the facvdties to the University of Vene- zuela, the Dominicans of Havana liad obtained from the same pope the privilege of establishing a imiver- sity which, owing to .some misunderstanding with the bishop, did not finally begin in the Dominican mon- astery until 1728. Tlie title of Royal and Pontifical University was accorded to it in 1734.
Such was the condition of university education in the West Indies and South America up to the Revo- lution. Most of the old universities continued, but no longer under the direct control of the Church, passing generally, in course of time, to the Depart- ment of Public Instruction. St. Mark's at Lima stiU exists, and preserves its autonomy, with the old title of pontifical, and with a faculty of theology, tliough it is said that in its secular departments, its religious influence has passed away. The University of Cuzco occupies to-day a portion of the former Jesuit college. That of San Cristobal at Guamanga became extinct in 1878. The University of St. Augustine at Arequipa Btill exists, and Trujillo, where a college was founded in 1621, enjoys to-day the benefits of a university. The University of Sucre (Charcas) is stiU regarded as the best in Bolivia, where the Universities, also, of La Paz, Santa Ouz, and Cochabamba exist. The Bolivian universities have faculties of theology, sub- ject to ecclesiastical control. Colombia has to-day a national university at Bogotd, consisting of faculties in separate colleges. There are also universities at Cauca, Antio(]uia, Narino, and Cartagena. At Quito higher education is imparted in the Central University of Ix'uador, priests, among them Jesuits, being permitted to hold chairs. Venezuela has actually two universities, the Central University and that of Los Andes. The old Jesuit University (if Ciinloba is to-day one of the three national uni- versiti(M of Argentina. At Santiago de Chile, the
convictorium of St. Francis Xavier has become the In- stituto Nacional, that serves as a preparatory school for the National University which is the historical sequel of San Felipe. The University of Havana remained in charge of the Dominicans until 1842, when it was secularized. It still exists, with faculties of letters and science, law, and medicine. At present there are two Catholic universities in South America, the one of Santiago de Chile, founded by Archbishop Casanova in 1888, and the other at Buenos Aires. The former has faculties of law, mathematics, agricul- ture and industry, and engineering. The Cathohc University of Buenos Aires, still in the formative period, has faculties of law and social science. The tendency of South American universities to-day in general is rather practical than theoretical and classical, much stress being laid upon such studies as engineering and others of a practical nature.
Markham, a Hist, of Peru (Chicago, 1892); Idem, Peru (Lon- don. 1880); Idem. Cuzco and Lima (London, 1856); Garland, El Pent en 1906 (Lima, 1907) ; tr by Gepp (Lima, 1907) ; Ciria- cus MoRELLCs (DoMiNGO MuRiEL, S.J.), Fasti Novi Orbis et ordinationum apostoHcaTum ad Indias pertinentium cum annota- tionibus (Venice, 1776); MENDlBURt;, Apuntes histdricos del Peiil (Lima, 1902) ; Angulo, La orden de Santo Domingo en et Peru (Lima, 1906); Fuentes, Lima (Paris, 1866); Anales de la universidad mayor de San Marcos (Lima, 1902-3) ; Memoria de Justicia, instruccidn y culto (Lima, 1902) ; Fuentes, Cuzco y sua ruinas (Lima, 1905); Giesecke, Memoria del rector de la uni- versidad de Cuzco (Cuzco, 1910) ; Men^ndez y Pelayo, introduc- tion to Antologia de poetas hispano-americanos (Madrid, 1895) ; Guinaztj, Los frailes en Chile al traves de los siglos (Santiago, 1909) ; ViCTJNA SoBERCASEAUX, Memoria sobre la produccidn intellectual en Chile (Santiago, 1909) ; Huneeus Gana, Cuadro histdrico de la produccidn intellectual en Chile (Santiago, 1910) ; Barros Arana, Historia jeneral de Chile (Santiago, 1885) ; Ibanez, Las crdnicas de Bogotd (Bogota, 1891) ; Vergara t Ver- gara, Historia de la literatura en Nueva Granada (Bogota, 1867); Quijano Otero, Compendia de historia patria (Bogota, 1883); RocHERAUX, La vie intellectuelle en Colombie (Santander, Colom- bia) ; Van Brab.\nt, La Bolivie (Paris and Brussels) ; GarcIa, Compendia de la historia de Santo Domingo (Santo Domingo, 1896); Universidad de la Habana. Memoria anuario (Havana, 1904) ; RoDHfGUEZ, Vida del presbltero Don Felix Varela (New York, 1S78); Anales de la universidad central del Ecuador,
Charles Warren Currier.
IV. United States. — A. Columbia Vniversily, Portland, Oregon, formerly known as Portland T^ni- versity, is located on the east bank of the Willa- mette River in northern Portland, and is conducted by the Congregation of Holy Cross, whose mother- house is at Notre Dame, Indiana. In 1898 Portland University, conducted by a local Methodist asso- ciation, failed and was obliged to close its doors. For three years the buildings were unoccupied. In 1901 the school buildings and property of this institution were acquired by Most Reverend .-Al- exander Christie, D.D., Archbishop of Oregon City. For one year the school, now called Columbia University, was conducted by the diocesan clergy. In 1902 Archbishop Christie appealed for teachers to Rev. J. A. Zahm, then provincial of the Congregation of Holy Cross, who at once sent some of his religious to take charge of the new institute. In 1909 the university was incorporated under the laws of Oregon, and empowered to teach collegiate and university courses and to confer certificates, diplomas, honours, and degrees in the arts, sciences, philology, litera- ture, history, mathematics, and other university branches. To meet the need of a thorough prepara- tory school in the North-West an academic depart- ment was founded at Columbia. The first faculties organized were those of arts and letters and science. To-day, besides the college department and prepara- tory school, Columbia has chairs of philosophy, history and economics, mathematics and languages. There have been three ])residents of the university. Rev. E. P. Murphy, of Portland, was chosen as first president; Rev. Michael Quinlan, C.S.C., and Rev. Joseph Gallagher, C.S.C., were his successors. At present (1912) about two hundred students are registered. The faculties are made up of twenty professors including a few laymen. The erection of