Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/54

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§ 23.
— 16 —

following rules accordingly are not applicable to the East-Syrian pronunciation of ܦ‍.

B. These letters are hard in the beginning of words, e. g. ܒܱ݁ܝܬܴ݁ܠ "house", ܓܱ݁ܡܠܴܐ "camel," &c. (but notice § 24 and § 25).

C. ܬ ܦ‍ ܟ‍ ܕ ܓ ܒ‍ experience R.—(i. e. take the soft pronunciation) after any vowel, however short, when they do not happen to be doubled. Thus after a full vowel ܩܳܒ݂ܶܠ, ܣܺܝܓ݂, ܫܱܦ݂ܠܱܐ, ܩܽܘܕ݂ܫܳܐ, ܣܷܬ݂ܪܴܐ, ܣܱܟ݂ܠܴܐ &c.

On the other hand these letters undergo Q. (i. e. take the hard form) when they are doubled: ܩܱܒܷ݁ܠ (קַבֵּל), ܣܱܓܻ݁ܝ (סַגִּי), ܡܩܱܕܰ݁ܫ, ܣܽܘܟܴ݁ܠܴܐ, ܫܱܦ݁ܠܷܬ, ܣܷܬܴ݁ܪܴܐ, &c., and even after long vowels ܪܴܓܻ݁ܝܢ (rāggīn "they desire") ܒ݁ܬܷ݁ܐ (bāttē "houses"), &c.

Exceptions[errata 1]: ܐܱܝܟ݂ "as", which is pronounced akh.

ܶEven the mere sheva mobile effects R. just as a vowel would: ܩܒ݂ܘܿܠ (qe̊vol), ܣܓ݂ܳܐ, ܡܱܡܠܟ݂ܺܝܢ, &c. Thus is it also when one of the particles ܘ ܕ ܠ‍ ܒ‍ is prefixed: ܒܴ݁ܢܶܐ; but ܠܒ݂ܳܢܶܐ (le̊vānē); ܓ݁ܐܷܪܴܐ, but ܒܓ݂ܶܐܪܴܐ, &c. So too is it when several of these words or particles are prefixed, e. g. ܓܱ݁ܪ̈ܡܶܐ: ܒ݁ܓܱܪ̈ܡܶܐ, ܕܱ݁ܒ݂ܓ݂ܰܪ̈ܡܷܐ, ܘܕ݂ܰܓ݂ܰܪ̈ܡܷܐ; ܒܱ݁ܝܬܴ݁ܐ: ܘܱܒ݂ܕ݂ܰܠܒ݂ܰܝܬܴ݁ܐ, &c. Except upon the first consonant, these prefixes however have no effect, thus, ܟ݁ܐ݂ܳܒ݂ܳܐ ke̊thāvā, ܠܟ݂ܬ݂ܳܒ݂ܳܐ lakhthāvā, originally lakhe̊thāvā, not lakhtāvā &c.

Regularly the sheva mobile has a softening effect after a consonant originally doubled, thus ܡܚܰܫܒ݂ܺܝܢ (מְחַשְּׁבִֿין), ܪܷܓ݁ܬ݂ܳܐ (רֶגְּתָֿא), ܡܱܚܬ݂ܳܐ maḥḥe̊thā = manḥe̊thā), &c. So also, of course, when the consonant furnished with sheva mobile is preceded by another which is quite vowelless, as in ܡܱܣܗܕ݂ܺܝܢ, ܕ݂ܶܚܠܬ݂ܳܐ, ܡܱܡܠܟ݂ܳܐ, &c.

D. But many a sheva mobile fell away (sheva mobile transmuted into sheva quiescens) at a time when the influence which it exercised upon the softening process (Rukkākhā) was still a living one, with the result that the influence of the hardening process (Quāyā) in turn ap-

    enquiry into R. and Q. of p. Besides even good MSS. and prints contain errors sometimes, as regards these 'points'.

Errata:
  1. Correction: Exceptions should be amended to Exception: detail