Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/55

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
§ 23.
— 17 —

peared. On the other hand such falling away occasionally came about at a time when the influence referred to was no longer in being, so that Rukkākhā remained effective even after the disappearance of sheva mobile. Upon the whole R. has been abandoned more completely in the case of the falling away of an that had originated from i (e), than in that of an from a: compare ܓܰܪܒ݂ܳܐ "scabies" from garăvā, with ܓܰܪܒܴ݁ܐ "scabiosus" from garĭvā. It makes no difference whether the foregoing syllable,—now a closed one (ending in sheva quiescens),—has a long or a short vowel; cf. ܢܳܣܒܻ݁ܝܢ, ܩܳܬ݂ܒܻ݁ܝܢ, ܦ݂ܠܓܾ݁ܘܬ݂ܳܐ, and other derivatives from the act. part. Peal[1]; ܫܩܽܘܠܬܴ݁ܐ, ܐܱܥܸܝܪܬܷ݁ܗ "I awakened him", &c.

In the interior of words R., when it comes after an earlier sheva mobile unpreceded by two consonants without a full vowel or by a double consonant, is now kept up only here and there, and that particularly in the verb: cf. even cases like ܢܹܐ̈ܠܕ݁ܵܢ nēldān (nīldōn) "they bring forth children", from nēli̊δān. For the substantive,—cf. cases like ܡܱ̈ܠܟܱ݁ܝ, contrasted with the Hebr. מַלְכֵֿי from malåkhai (but v. § 93) and ܡܱܠܟܾ݁ܘܬ, contrasted with מַלְכֿוּת.

E. The usage in the case of Fem. ܬܴܐ is specially fluctuating, for the ܬ here is often hard after a consonant, and often on the other hand soft. This ܬ has nearly always Q. [i. e. it is pronounced hard, as if with Dag. lene] after syllables which have a long vowel, particularly ī or ū, e. g. ܫܱܪܻܝܪܬܴ݁ܐ, ܩܱܕܺܝܫܬܴ݁ܐ, ܒܺܝܫܬܴ݁ܐ, ܒܺܝܕܬܴ݁ܐ, ܦܪܻܝܩܬܴ݁ܐ, ܕܹܐܪܬܴ݁ܐ, ܚܹܐܪܬܴ݁ܐ, ܢܦܹܐܣܬܴ݁ܐ; ܩܒܽܘܪܬܴ݁ܐ, ܕܪܶܘܟ݂ܬܴ݁ܐ, ܨܽܘܪܬܴ݁ܐ, ܒܬܽܘܠܬܴ݁ܐ, &c.; Exceptions:—ܢܝܳܚܬܴ݁ܐ, ܣܝܳܡܬܴ݁ܐ, ܒܹܥܬ݂ܳܐ[2]; ܪܚܽܘܡܬ݂ܳܐ, and some others. With ā: ܢܝܳܚܬܴ݁ܐ, ܣܝܳܡܬܴ݁ܐ, ܣܱܝܒܳܪܬܴ݁ܐ, ܚܳܠܬܴ݁ܐ, &c.; but ܪܴܡܬ݂ܳܐ, ܡܪܴܡܬ݂ܳܐ, ܡܙܳܥܬ݂ܳܐ, ܜܳܒܬ݂ܳܐ, ܣܴܒܬ݂ܳܐ, ܫܳܥܬ݂ܳܐ, ܥܴܩܬ݂ܳܐ, and a few others. Always Q. (i. e. Quššāyā, or Dag. lene) after ◌ܳ‎‍ܝ, e. g. ܫܳܡܪܴܝܬܴ݁ܐ, ܙܰܢܳܝܬܴ݁ܐ. After syllables with ă, perhaps R. of ܬ somewhat preponderates: ܚܒܱܪܬ݂ܳܐ, ܦܩܱܥܬ݂ܳܐ, ܢܫܱܡܬ݂ܳܐ, ܡܱܘܕܰܥܬ݂ܳܐ, ܡܱܘܗܰܒ݂ܬ݂ܳܐ, ܩܱܪܩܱܦ݂ܬ݂ܳܐ, ܐܷܓܱ݁ܪܬ݂ܳܐ, &c.; yet ܡܱܥܱܠܬܴ݁ܐ, ܫܹܝܫܱܠܬ݂݁ܐ, ܡܫܱܒܱܚܬܴ݁ܐ, ܬܱܚܢܱܢܬܴ݁ܐ, and many others. With ĕ Q. has the preponderance: ܝܺܬ݂ܶܒ݂ܬܴ݁ܐ, ܫܷܒܷ݁ܠܬܴ݁ܐ, ܬܱܠܒܷ݁ܫܬܴ݁ܐ, and many others; yet ܝܺܙܶܦ݂ܬ݂ܳܐ, and so too, forms
  1. Contrary to the Hebrew כֹתְבִים, &c. A few exceptions, like ܦ݂ܠܓ݂ܺܝܢ 1 Cor. 9, 13, are cited.
  2. According to the best traditions.

2