Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/57

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§§ 24. 25.
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H. Original doubling in the termination preserves Q. in ܪܱܒ݁ (like ܪܱܒܴ݁ܐ) "great", ܓܽܘܒ݁ "a pit", ܓܰܒ݁ (ܓܰܒܴ݁ܐ from ܓܰܢܒܴ݁ܐ) "side", ܕܽܘܟ݁ "place"; so too ܐܱܢ̄ܬ݁ at = att from ant "thou"; so also ܠܷܒ݁ܝ leb "my heart" (like ܠܷܒ݁ܐ lebbā), ܓܰܕ݁ܝ gad "my good fortune" (like ܓܰܕ݁ܐ) and the like. On the other hand we have ܫܷܬ݂ "six" (its doubling early disappeared), ܓܶܢ̄ܒ݂ "side" (also ܓܶܢ̄ܒ݂ܝ "my side") and verbal forms like ܫܱܒ݂ "lowered", ܪܱܓ݂ "longed for" (and also in the plural ܪܱܓ݂ܘ &c.).

I. Secondary doubling, which causes Q., we find regularly in the 1st sing. Impf. when the first radical has a vowel, as in ܐܷܕ݁ܽܩܫ "I tread", ܐܷܟܱ݁ܕܶܒ݂ "I tell lies", ܐܷܒܱ݁ܪܟ݂ܳܟ "I bless thee", ܐܷܓܱ݁ܪܷܐ "I hunt," &c. Farther in the Aphel in some verbs middle ܘ: ܐܱܟܻ݁ܝܢ "made ready", ܐܱܟܻ݁ܝܠ "measured", as contrasted with ܐܱܬ݂ܺܝܒ݂ "gave back", &c. (§ 177 D).

J. Words, which are otherwise like-sounding, are often distinguished through R. and Q., as ܓܰܠܻܝܬ݁ "thou hast revealed", and ܓܰܠܻܝܬ݂ "I have revealed"; ܩܷܫܬ݂ܳܐ qešthā from qešše̊thā (f. of Hebr. קַשׁ) "stubble", and ܩܷܫܬܴ݁ܐ (קֶשֶׁת) "a bow", &c.

R. and Q. in closely associated words. § 24. R. appears in the beginning of a word, when this word is closely associated with a preceding one which ends in a vowel, thus ܡܳܠ ܕ݂ܐܷܬ݂ܳܐ, John 16, 8; ܡܠܴܐ ܬ݂ܽܘܒ, John 16, 16; ܐܱܒ݂ܳܐ ܒ݂ܺܝ ܘܷܐܢܳܐ ܒ݂ܶܗ John 10, 38 (Bernstein) &c. The slightest pause, however, interrupts the softening. Similarly, two closely-associated words, of which the first ends in the same consonant as that with which the second begins, or a consonant like it, are so pronounced together that a doubling appears, which is indicated by the Q. of both of them: ܡܱܣܱܒ݁ ܒܱ݁ܐܦܷ̈ܐ massabbappē (instead of ܡܣܒ݂ ܒ݁ܐܦ̈ܐ "playing the hypocrite"; ܢܳܣܷܒ݁ ܒܱ݁ܐܦܷ̈ܐ "hypocrite"; ܒܷܬ݁ ܕ݁ܝܘܿܬ݂ܐ "ink-bottle".

Greek words. § 25. According to the prescriptions of the Schools, Greek words are not to be subjected to the rules for softening and hardening. Thus ܕܦ݁ܪܨܘܿܦܴ݁ܐ de̊πarṣōπā (πρόσωπον); ܡܶܢ ܦ݂ܶܝܠܻܝܦ݁ܘܿܣ "from Philippos", &c. (where ܦ݁ is

    scription on the part of the Schools. Thus against all rules, they would have us say ܐܷܨܒ݂ܘܿܥ "I dye", but ܐܱܨܒܳܘܿܥ "I dip into"; farther ܐܴܚܕ݂ܺܝܢ "shut", but ܐܴܚܕ݁ܺܝܢ "hold", although these words are identical. The distinction, besides, between ܩܝܳܡܬ݁ܐ "resurrection" and ܩܝܳܡܬ݂ܐ was hardly known to the living speech. In addition to these examples there is a medley of cases resting upon the caprice of the Schools.

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