the Greek π, § 15). ܒ݂ is made the equivalent of the Greek β, ܕ that of δ, ܟ݂ of χ ܦ݂ of φ; ܓ݂ generally that of γ. Thus for instance ܟ݂ܠܱܡܽܘܣ χλαμύς, ܬ݂ܐܘܪܝܐ θεωρία, ܒ݂ܣܝܠܠܝܘܣ Βασίλειος, ܓ݂ܪܱܡܱܜܺܝܩܹܐ γραμματική, &c. ξ has to be ܟ݁ܣ, e. g. ܐܷܟ݁ܣܘܿܪܻܝܱܐ ἐξορία; yet ܟ݂ܣ appears frequently, e. g. East-Syrian ܜܲܟ݂ܣܵܐ τάξις (West-Syrian ܜܶܟ݁ܣܴܐ)). Generally speaking we find here too,—especially in words early introduced,—transformations, of a genuine Syrian type, e. g. ܐܷܣܟܹ݁ܡܳܐ σχῆμα, ܐܱܦ݂ܬ݁ܪܴܐ φθορά, ܣܽܘܒ݁ܠܴܐ συμβολή, &c.
Other foreign words too, in individual cases, vary from the rules, as regards R. and Q., e. g. ܦܷܬ݂ܓ݂ܳܡܳܐ "word" (Persian), where one would expect a hard ܓ.
DENTALS AND SIBILANTS.
Dentals and Sibilants. § 26. A. The ܬ of the Reflexive changes place, according to a common Semitic fashion, with the sibilant immediately following it (as first radical), and is altered into ܜ with ܨ, and into ܕ with ܙ, thus ܐܷܣܬ݁ܒܹܰܪ (for ܐܷܬ݂ܣܒ݂ܰܪ) "was thought", from ܣܒܱܪ "thought"; ܐܷܫܬܒ݂ܺܝ "was taken prisoner", from ܫܒ݂ܳܐ; ܐܷܨܜܠܷܒ݂ "was crucified", from ܨܠܱܒ݂; ܐܷܙܕܰܟܻ݁ܝ "was justified" from ܙܰܟܻ݁ܝ.B. This ܬ is assimilated to a following ܜ and ܬ, becoming hard in the process: ܐܷܬ݁ܜܰܫܷܐ (pronounce eṭṭaššē) "was concealed"; ܐܷܬ݁ܬܱ݁ܒܱܪ (written also ܐܷܬ݂ܬܱ݁ܒܱܪ, ܐܷܬܬܱ݁ܒܱܪ) ettabbar "was broken in pieces"; so too, before a ܕ݁ furnished with a full vowel, e. g. ܢܷܬܕ݁ܰܟ݂ܪܴܟ neddakhrākh "remembers thee". A ܕ without a full vowel, on the other hand, here falls away in pronunciation, after the ܬ that has likewise become hard: ܐܷܬܕ݁ܟ݂ܰܪ ette̊khar "remembered". A like assimilation takes place, where an initial ܕ or ܬ without a full vowel is pressed by a foregoing prefix upon a following ܕ, ܬ or ܜ. The ܕ or ܬ is then written hard; ܘܱܕ݁ܕ݁ܡܷܐ "and who is like", ܠܱܕ݁ܕ݂ܰܩܕܩܺܝܢ "to persons or things, however small"; ܘܱܬ݁ܕ݂ܽܘܨ "and thou dost skip"; ܘܱܕ݁ܬ݂ܳܐܶܟ and who abides"; ܘܱܬ݁ܬ݂ܽܘܒ "and repentest, ܘܱܬܳܜܰܫܷܐ "and hidest": and the pronunciation must have been waddāmē, wattūṣ, etc.
- Thus there are found in MSS. sometimes, forms like ܢܬܬܚܐ for ܢܷܬܕܚܶܐ "is pushed" and even ܡܬܬܝܚܘܬܐ for ܡܷܬ݁ܕ݁ܺܝܢܳܢܽܘܬ݂ܐ, ܡܷܬܬܪܺܝܢܳܢܽܘܬܴܐ "capability of being judged".