Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/58

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§ 26.
— 20 —

the Greek π, § 15). ܒ݂ is made the equivalent of the Greek β, ܕ that of δ, ܟ݂ of χ ܦ݂ of φ; ܓ݂ generally that of γ. Thus for instance ܟ݂ܠܱܡܽܘܣ χλαμύς, ܬ݂ܐܘܪܝܐ θεωρία, ܒ݂ܣܝܠܠܝܘܣ Βασίλειος, ܓ݂ܪܱܡܱܜܺܝܩܹܐ γραμματική, &c. ξ has to be ܟ݁ܣ, e. g. ܐܷܟ݁ܣܘܿܪܻܝܱܐ ἐξορία; yet ܟ݂ܣ appears frequently, e. g. East-Syrian ܜܲܟ݂ܣܵܐ τάξις (West-Syrian ܜܶܟ݁ܣܴܐ)). Generally speaking we find here too,—especially in words early introduced,—transformations, of a genuine Syrian type, e. g. ܐܷܣܟܹ݁ܡܳܐ σχῆμα, ܐܱܦ݂ܬ݁ܪܴܐ φθορά, ܣܽܘܒ݁ܠܴܐ συμβολή, &c.

Other foreign words too, in individual cases, vary from the rules, as regards R. and Q., e. g. ܦܷܬ݂ܓ݂ܳܡܳܐ "word" (Persian), where one would expect a hard ܓ.

 

DENTALS AND SIBILANTS.

Dentals and Sibilants. § 26. A. The ܬ of the Reflexive changes place, according to a common Semitic fashion, with the sibilant immediately following it (as first radical), and is altered into ܜ with ܨ, and into ܕ with ܙ, thus ܐܷܣܬ݁ܒܹܰܪ (for ܐܷܬ݂ܣܒ݂ܰܪ) "was thought", from ܣܒܱܪ "thought"; ܐܷܫܬܒ݂ܺܝ "was taken prisoner", from ܫܒ݂ܳܐ; ܐܷܨܜܠܷܒ݂ "was crucified", from ܨܠܱܒ݂; ܐܷܙܕܰܟܻ݁ܝ "was justified" from ܙܰܟܻ݁ܝ.

B. This ܬ is assimilated to a following ܜ and ܬ, becoming hard in the process: ܐܷܬ݁ܜܰܫܷܐ (pronounce eṭṭaššē) "was concealed"; ܐܷܬ݁ܬܱ݁ܒܱܪ (written also ܐܷܬ݂ܬܱ݁ܒܱܪ, ܐܷܬܬܱ݁ܒܱܪ) ettabbar "was broken in pieces"; so too, before a ܕ݁ furnished with a full vowel, e. g. ܢܷܬܕ݁ܰܟ݂ܪܴܟ neddakhrākh "remembers thee". A ܕ without a full vowel, on the other hand, here falls away in pronunciation, after the ܬ that has likewise become hard: ܐܷܬܕ݁ܟ݂ܰܪ ette̊khar "remembered"[1]. A like assimilation takes place, where an initial ܕ or ܬ without a full vowel is pressed by a foregoing prefix upon a following ܕ, ܬ or ܜ. The ܕ or ܬ is then written hard; ܘܱܕ݁ܕ݁ܡܷܐ "and who is like", ܠܱܕ݁ܕ݂ܰܩܕܩܺܝܢ "to persons or things, however small"; ܘܱܬ݁ܕ݂ܽܘܨ "and thou dost skip"; ܘܱܕ݁ܬ݂ܳܐܶܟ and who abides"; ܘܱܬ݁ܬ݂ܽܘܒ "and repentest, ܘܱܬܳܜܰܫܷܐ "and hidest": and the pronunciation must have been waddāmē, wattūṣ, etc.
  1. Thus there are found in MSS. sometimes, forms like ܢܬܬܚܐ for ܢܷܬܕܚܶܐ "is pushed" and even ܡܬܬܝܚܘܬܐ for ܡܷܬ݁ܕ݁ܺܝܢܳܢܽܘܬ݂ܐ, ܡܷܬܬܪܺܝܢܳܢܽܘܬܴܐ "capability of being judged".