Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/63

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§§ 36—38.
— 25 —

manuscripts, e. g. ܡܟܘܠܬܐ for ܡܷܐܟ݂ܽܘܠܬܴ݁ܐ "food"; ܢܟܘܠ for ܢܶܐܟ݂ܘܿܠ "eats"; ܦܬܐ for ܦܱܐܬ݂ܳܐ "face". On the other hand ܐ, even when a manifestly superfluous letter, is yet placed in words where it should not have appeared at all,—as in ܡܣܐܒ for ܡܱܣܱܒ "to take"; ܠܐܥܠܘܢ for ܠܷܥܥܽܘܢ "ye enter"; ܜܐܒܐ for ܜܶܒܴ݁ܐ "report"; ܩܐܝܡܝܢ for ܩܳܝܡܺܝܢ "stand" (pl.); ܬܘܗܐܝܐ for ܬܽܘܗܳܝܳܐ "delay"; ܕܐܘܘܢܐ, ܕܘܘܐܢܐ and even ܕܐܘܘܐܢܐ for ܕܵܘܘܿܢܵܐ or (West-S.) ܕܽܘܘܳܢܳܐ "pity", &c.; or it stands in the wrong place, like ܜܐܡܘܬܐ for ܜܰܡܽܐܘܬ݂ܳܐ "uncleanness"; ܫܐܘܠܐ for ܫܽܘܐܴܠܳܐ "question"; ܐܫܝܠܐ or ܫܺܐܝܠܴܐ "demanded" (part.) &c.; or it is doubled instead of being written once, as in ܢܒܝܐܐ for ܢܒ݂ܰܝܱܐ "comforts", and the like. The superfluous ܐ is a good deal in favour in certain causative forms, particularly in short ones, e. g. ܡܱܐܚܶܐ = ܡܱܚܶܐ "gives life"; ܢܰܐܗܰܪ "injures".

ܬܐ becoming ܬܬ. § 36. In certain cases a vowel-less ܬ݂, followed by an ܐ, blends with that letter into a hard ܬ݁ doubled and generally written ܬܬ (pointed ܬ݂ܬ݁, ܬ݁ܬ, ܬܬ̇, ܬܬ݁, which all express the same sound, § 26): in older days it was often signified by a single ܬ. Thus, regularly, in the reflexive of Aphel ܐܷܬܬܱ݁ܩܜܰܠ, ܐܷܬ݁ܬܱ݁ܩܜܰܠ for ethʾaqṭal; ܐܷܬܬ݁ܩܺܝܡ "was established" (ܐܬܩܝܡ) v. § 177 D &c. Thus, besides, in ܐܷܬܬ݁ܚܶܕ "was held" (ܐܬܚܕ) for ethʾe̊ḥeδ, and occasionally in similar forms (§ 174 C). A single ܬ is almost always written for ܬܬ, if another ܬ precedes by way of prefix, e. g. ܬܷܬ݁ܩܺܝܡ, ܬܷܬ݁ܚܶܕ, instead of ܬܬܬܩܝܡ, ܬܬܬܚܕ.

ܥ. § 37. Even before the orthography was elaborated, a ܥ‍ followed by another ܥ‍ in the same root became ܐ (ܐܶܠܥܴܐ "rib", from ܥܷܠܥܴܐ; ܐܱܥܦܴ݁ܐ "doubled", from ܥܱܥܦܴ݁ܐ, and many others):[1] In like manner, with the West-Syrians, a ܥ‍ coming immediately before ܗ becomes ܐ and is treated like it in every respect. Thus ܥܷܗܰܕ "remembered",—pronounce ܐܷܗܰܕ, from ܥܗܰܕ; ܥܽܘܗܕܳܢܳܐ "recollection",—pronounce ܐܾܘܗܕܳܢܳܐ; ܡܶܬ݂ܶܥܗܶܕ metheheδ for ܡܷܬ݂ܥܗܶܕ, &c. This change, which becomes noticeable even in the fourth century, and is occasionally indicated also in writing (ܐܗܪܝܢ, ܐܗܝܪ for ܥܴܗܪܻܝܢ, ܥܱܗܺܝܪ "to be in heat"), has however remained unknown to the East-Syrians.

ܗ. § 38. ܗ, which as an initial letter had, even in ancient times, often
  1. Cf. ܢܳܢܥܴܐ "mentha" ['mint'] from נַעְנְעָא.