Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/64

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§§ 39. 40.
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passed into ܐ (e. g. in ܐܷܢܘܿܢ secondary form of ܗܶܢܘܿܢ "they", and in the Aphel ܐܱܩܜܶܠ from haqṭel, &c.), falls away in pronunciation in many forms of the suffix of the 3rd sing. masc., e. g. ܡܱܠܟܱܘ̈ܗ̄ܝ malkau from malkauhī, "his kings"; ܒܢܳܝܗ̄ܝ "built it" (m.); ܢܷܩܜܠܻܝܘܗ̄ܝ "kills him". The personal pronoun—ܗܽܘ "he" or ܗܺܝ "she"—loses the ܗ, when it is enclitic, e. g. ܩܜܰܠܽ ܗ̄ܘܼ qe̊talū; ܠܷܗܽ ܗ̄ܘ or ܠܗܘ lēhū; ܡܳܢܳܐ ܗ̄ܝ mānāi from mānā hī; ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̄ܘܼ from mānā hū. In fact ܡܳܢܱܘ, ܗܳܢܱܘ, ܐܱܝܟܱܘ are often written for ܡܳܢܰܐ ܗ̄ܘ, ܗܳܢܰܐ ܗ̄ܘ, ܐܱܝܟܱܐ. So always ܠܱܘ "not", from ܠܴܐ ܗܽܘ. From ܗܘ ܗܘ, ܗܝ ܗܝ come ܗܽܘܝܽܘ, ܗܺܝܺܝ: but ܗܝ ܗܝ is occasionally written even yet, though we do not so often meet with ܗܘ ܗܘ.

The ܗ of ܗ̄ܘܳܐ "fruit", falls away when employed as an enclitic: ܩܜܰܠ ܗ̄ܘܳܐ, ܩܳܜܠܻܝܢ ܗ̄ܘܱܘ (§ 299), &c.

The ܗ of the very common verb ܝܗܒ "to give" falls away in the Perfect in all cases where it had a vowel; thus ܝܱܗ̄ܒ݂, ܝܱܗ̄ܒ݂ܬ݁, ܝܱܗ̄ܒ݂ܬ݁ܘܿܢ, ܝܱܗ̄ܒ݂ܬܷ݁ܗ, &c. The East-Syrians suppress the ܗ even in cases like ܝܸܗ̄ܒܹ݁ܬ݂, &c., and similarly in ܐܸܬ݂ܝܲܗ̄ܒܲܬ݂, ܒܸܗ̄ܠܹܬ݂, &c.

For ܝܺܗܽܘܕܳܐ "Judah", ܝܺܗܽܘܕܳܝܴܐ "a Jew", &c. (from יְהוּדָא, יְהוּדָיָא, &c.) one may say also ܝܽܗ̄ܘܕܳܐ, ܝܽܗ̄ܘܕܳܝܴܐ Yūδā, Yūδāyā. ܝܘܕ̈ܝܐ &c. are written even without ܗ.

Greek rh. § 39. In Greek words ܪܗ is often written to express the aspirated ῥ, e. g. ܪܗܘܡܐ Ῥώμη, ܦܪܪܗܣܝܐ (along with ܦܪܪܝܣܝܐ, ܦܐܪܪܝܣܝܐ and other forms of transcription) παῥῥησία, &c. This ܗ has no consonantal value, and only in mistake is it treated occasionally as a true consonant.

 
Vowel-Letters ܘ and ܝ. Usual changes.

THE VOWEL-LETTERS ܘ and ܝ

§ 40. A. W beginning a root becomes y in Syriac, as in Hebrew, when it is not protected by certain prefixes. Root WLD thus yields ܝܱܠܕ݁ܳܐ "child"; ܝܷܠܕ݁ܰܬ݂ "she bare"; but ܐܱܘܠܷܕ݂ "he begat"; ܡܱܘܠܴܕ݂ܳܐ "birth", &c. The initial w is however kept in ܘܱ, ܘ "and"; ܘܳܠܷܐ "it is becoming" (and so ܘܳܠܝܳܐ f.; ܘܳܠܝܳܐܺܝܬ "decently" &c.); ܘܱܥܕ݁ܳܐ "an appointment" (and thus ܘܱܥܷܕ݂ "to appoint"; ܐܷܬ݂ܘܱܥܱܕ "to agree upon"); ܘܱܪܻܝܕ݂ܳܐ "vein"; add the interjection ܘܳܝ "woe!", whence ܘܳܝܴܐ "the woe"; so too ܘܱܪܘܳܪܐ "bee-eater"; and ܘܱܜܐ "a kind of partridge", which two words evidently are meant to re-