Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/65

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§ 40.
— 27 —

produce the natural calls of these birds. Other words beginning with ܘ like ܘܱܪܕܳܐ "rose" are foreign or uncertain.

B. ܘ and ܝ have both of them too much of the nature of vowels to be able to stand as true consonants in the end of a syllable; they always form in that case simple vowels or diphthongs, thus: ܫܽܘܘܕܳܝܴܐ "promise" (with ܫܱܘܕܺܝ šaudī "promised") šūdāyā, not šuvdāyā, for it was frequently even written with just one ܘ)[1]; ܠܱܘ lau "not", not lav (from lā-ū, lāhū § 38); ܘܪܱܘ (East-Syrian ܘܪܵܘ) "called" qe̊rau; ܓܰܠܺܝܘ "revealed" (3 pl.) gallīu (not gallīv)[2]; ܒܱܝܬܴܐ "house" baitā; ܩܳܝܡܺܝܢ "rise" qāimīn; ܐܘܿܪܗܳܝܬܴ݁ܐ "Edessena" Orhāitā, &c.

C. ܝ without a full vowel always becomes ī in the beginning of the syllable. In the beginning of a word ܐܝ is often written for it; thus ܝܺܬܷܒ, ܐܺܝܬܷܒ īthev "sat", from יְתֵב; ܝܺܕܱܥ, ܐܻܝܕܰܥ īδaʿ "knew", from יְדַע; ܝܺܕܰܥܬ݂ܳܐ, ܐܝܕܥܬܐ "knowledge"; ܝܺܪܱܚ, ܐܻܝܪܱܚ "month" (emphatic state ܝܱܪܚܳܐ); farther, ܘܺܝܬܷܒ or ܘܐܝܬܒ, ܕܝܕܥܬܐ or ܕܐܝܕܥܬܐ &c. In later times the ܐ is not so often written in such cases as it was in earlier days. But still the ܐ is always found in ܐܻܝܩܳܪܴܐ "honour", ܐܻܝܕܳܐ "hand", ܐܻܝܡܳܡܳܐ "day", and thus in ܒܺܐܝܕܳܐ, ܠܻܐܝܡܳܡܳܐ &c. On ܝܽܗ̄ܘܕܳܝܴܐ along with ܝܺܗܽܘܕܳܝܳܐ, and ܝܱܗ̄ܒ instead of ܝܺܗܰܒ v. § 38.

So too, within the word, ܢܷܬ݂ܺܝܗܶܒ "is given", from נֶתְיְהֵב;‎ ܚܰܕܺܝܗܘܿܢ "their breast", from הַדְיְהוֹן (ܚܰܕܝܴܐ); ܟܽܘܣܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ "cap", from כוּסְיְתָא; ܫܓ݂ܽܘܫܺܝܗܘܿܢ "their commotion", from ܫܓܽܘܫܝܳܐ, &c.

In a closed syllable ye or yi becomes ī in ܐܻܝܬ݂ "exists", and in the foreign names ܐܻܣܪܴܝܷܠ or ܝܺܣܪܴܝܷܠ "Israel"; ܐܻܫܡܱܥܷܝܠ "Ismael" (both with orthographic variants); ܐܻܝܙܰܪܥܷܝܠ (for יִזְרְעַאל); and ܐܻܝܣܚܳܩ. Quite exceptionally, other forms are found, v. § 175 A, Rem.

For ܝܷܫܽܘܥ "Jesus" the Nestorians say ܝܼܫܘܿܥ Īšōʿ.


  1. Vice versâ,—because ܫܘܘ was pronounced like ܫܘ, the words pronounced šukōnō, šudōlō were in later times written ܫܘܘܟܢܐ, ܫܘܘܕܠܐ, where the doubled ܘ had no etymological foundation, since these words in their fundamental form are šukkānā, šuddālā, and belong to šakken "presented", and šaddel "enticed".
  2. The barbarous custom of pronouncing ו in the end of a syllable like a German w or indeed an f, instead of giving it a vowel sound (e. g. אביו aβīu, מלכיו me̊lākhāu), should be given up in Hebrew too.