produce the natural calls of these birds. Other words beginning with ܘ like ܘܱܪܕܳܐ "rose" are foreign or uncertain.
B. ܘ and ܝ have both of them too much of the nature of vowels to be able to stand as true consonants in the end of a syllable; they always form in that case simple vowels or diphthongs, thus: ܫܽܘܘܕܳܝܴܐ "promise" (with ܫܱܘܕܺܝ šaudī "promised") šūdāyā, not šuvdāyā, for it was frequently even written with just one ܘ); ܠܱܘ lau "not", not lav (from lā-ū, lāhū § 38); ܘܪܱܘ (East-Syrian ܘܪܵܘ) "called" qe̊rau; ܓܰܠܺܝܘ "revealed" (3 pl.) gallīu (not gallīv); ܒܱܝܬܴܐ "house" baitā; ܩܳܝܡܺܝܢ "rise" qāimīn; ܐܘܿܪܗܳܝܬܴ݁ܐ "Edessena" Orhāitā, &c.
C. ܝ without a full vowel always becomes ī in the beginning of the syllable. In the beginning of a word ܐܝ is often written for it; thus ܝܺܬܷܒ, ܐܺܝܬܷܒ īthev "sat", from יְתֵב; ܝܺܕܱܥ, ܐܻܝܕܰܥ īδaʿ "knew", from יְדַע; ܝܺܕܰܥܬ݂ܳܐ, ܐܝܕܥܬܐ "knowledge"; ܝܺܪܱܚ, ܐܻܝܪܱܚ "month" (emphatic state ܝܱܪܚܳܐ); farther, ܘܺܝܬܷܒ or ܘܐܝܬܒ, ܕܝܕܥܬܐ or ܕܐܝܕܥܬܐ &c. In later times the ܐ is not so often written in such cases as it was in earlier days. But still the ܐ is always found in ܐܻܝܩܳܪܴܐ "honour", ܐܻܝܕܳܐ "hand", ܐܻܝܡܳܡܳܐ "day", and thus in ܒܺܐܝܕܳܐ, ܠܻܐܝܡܳܡܳܐ &c. On ܝܽܗ̄ܘܕܳܝܴܐ along with ܝܺܗܽܘܕܳܝܳܐ, and ܝܱܗ̄ܒ instead of ܝܺܗܰܒ v. § 38.
So too, within the word, ܢܷܬ݂ܺܝܗܶܒ "is given", from נֶתְיְהֵב; ܚܰܕܺܝܗܘܿܢ "their breast", from הַדְיְהוֹן (ܚܰܕܝܴܐ); ܟܽܘܣܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ "cap", from כוּסְיְתָא; ܫܓ݂ܽܘܫܺܝܗܘܿܢ "their commotion", from ܫܓܽܘܫܝܳܐ, &c.
In a closed syllable ye or yi becomes ī in ܐܻܝܬ݂ "exists", and in the foreign names ܐܻܣܪܴܝܷܠ or ܝܺܣܪܴܝܷܠ "Israel"; ܐܻܫܡܱܥܷܝܠ "Ismael" (both with orthographic variants); ܐܻܝܙܰܪܥܷܝܠ (for יִזְרְעַאל); and ܐܻܝܣܚܳܩ. Quite exceptionally, other forms are found, v. § 175 A, Rem.
For ܝܷܫܽܘܥ "Jesus" the Nestorians say ܝܼܫܘܿܥ Īšōʿ.
- Vice versâ,—because ܫܘܘ was pronounced like ܫܘ, the words pronounced šukōnō, šudōlō were in later times written ܫܘܘܟܢܐ, ܫܘܘܕܠܐ, where the doubled ܘ had no etymological foundation, since these words in their fundamental form are šukkānā, šuddālā, and belong to šakken "presented", and šaddel "enticed".
- The barbarous custom of pronouncing ו in the end of a syllable like a German w or indeed an f, instead of giving it a vowel sound (e. g. אביו aβīu, מלכיו me̊lākhāu), should be given up in Hebrew too.