Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/69

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§ 44.
— 31 —

from ܡܱܠܟܳܐ + ܕ + ܘ; ܘܱܠܕ݂ܰܒ݂ܩܷܜܠܴܐ "and to him that is involved in murder", from ܩܷܜܠܴܐ + ܒ‍ + ܕ + ܠ‍ + ܘ; ܘܱܒ݂ܕ݂ܰܩܜܰܠ from ܩܜܰܠ + ܕ + ܒ‍ + ܘ, &c. (but of course ܠܕ݂ܰܒ݂ܩܷܜܠܴܐ, ܒܕ݂ܰܘܩܜܰܠ, &c.).

If the second consonant of such a word is an ܐ, then the prefix usually takes the vowel: ܘܱܡܳܐܐ "and a hundred" wamā from wamʾā = מְאָא‎ + ו;‎ ܕܰܠܻܐܝ "who wearied" dalī from dalʾī; ܘܱܐܣܱܐܢ "and put on thy shoes" wasan from wasʾan, &c. And yet, along with these are also found, though ignoring the ܐ, forms like ܘܫܷܐܒ "and demanded" we̊šel = we̊ + šʾel (along with ܘܱܫܷܐܠ); thus, in particular, we most frequently have ܘܡܱܐܣܷܐ, ܘܢܰܐܣܷܐ, ܠܡܱܐܣܴܝܽܘ, and other forms from ܐܱܣܺܝ "to heal".

When two such prefixes stand before initial ܐ, the ܐ is generally neglected, e. g. ܘܒܱܐܝܢܳܐ "and in whom or what?", from ܐܱܝܢܳܐ + ܒ‍ + ܘ; ܘܠܷܐܡܳܟ "and to thy mother"; ܠܕ݂ܶܐܬ݁ܕ݁ܰܟ݂ܪܱܢ "to him who remembered us"; ܘܠܱܐܠܴܗܳܐ "et Deo", &c.—More rarely with ◌ܰ: ܠܱܕ݂ܰܐܗܡܺܝ "to him who neglected", from ܐܱܗܡܺܝ + ܕ + ܠ‍; ܕܰܒܽܐܘܪܚܳܐ "he who is on the way", &c. The same fluctuation is found with ܐܻܝ, ܝܻ, from ye: ܕܒ݂ܺܐܝܕ݂ܳܐ "who or what is in hand"; ܘܼܒ݂ܺܐܝ̈ܕ݂ܰܝܟ݁ܘܿܢ, with ܕܰܒ݂ܺܐܝ̈ܕ݂ܰܘܗ̄ܝ, ܕܿܠܝܼܫܘܿܥ (East-Syrian § 40 C); ܕܰܒܺܝܕܰܥܬܷܗ, &c.

Rem. The old poets express themselves in all these cases either with or without the a according to the requirements of the verse.

An ܝ, originating according to § 40 C, yields with such a prefix the forms ܠܻܝ, ܒܺܝ, &c., e. g. ܘܺܝܕ݂ܰܥ or ܘܐܻܝܕܰܥ "and knew", from ܝܺܕܰܥ, ܐܻܝܕܰܥ (= יְדַע) + ܘ.

Rem. The Nestorians oddly give the vowel a to the prefixes before ܝܗܘܕܐ, ܝܗܘܕܝܐ, &c., "Judah, Jew", thus ܠܲܝܗ̈ܘܼܕܵܝܹܐ, ܒܲܝܗܘܼܕ, ܘܐܲܝܗܘܼܕܵܐ, &c.

 
Some of the most important vowel-changes. ā.

SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VOWEL-CHANGES.

§ 44. The ā is retained with the East-Syrians, but has become ō with the West-Syrians. The former also set down ◌ܵ for the most part to represent the Greek α, particularly in an open syllable,—for which the West-Syrians prefer to keep ◌ܰ.

Before n the transition from ā to ō is partly found even earlier; thus in the sporadically occurring ܬܡܘܢ, ܬܡܘܢܐ, ܒܣܡ̈ܘܢܐ, ܟܦܣܘܢܝܬܐ, &c., for ܐܱܡܳܢ "there", ܬܡܳܢܶܐ "eight", ܒܷܣ̈ܡܳܢܶܐ "spices", ܟܷܦܣܴܢܺܝܬܴܐ "menstruans"; in