ܐܘܦ = ܐܴܦ "also"; still more usual are ܢܷܣܝܘܿܢܳܐ "temptation" (from ܢܷܣܝܳܢܳܐ though somewhat different in signification ["test or trial" 2 Cor. 2. 9]); ܓܶܠܝܘܿܢܳܐ as well as ܓܶܠܝܳܢܳܐ "revelation"; ܝܱܪ̈ܩܘܿܢܶܐ "vegetables" &c. (§ 74).
a. § 45. a has frequently become e, e. g. ܩܷܜܠܱܬ "she killed", from qaṭalath (cf. ܩܱܜܠܷܗ "he killed him"); ܒܷܣܪܴܐ "flesh", from basarā, &c. Here and there the vocalisation fluctuates between a and e: the East-Syrians especially give preference, upon occasion, to the former; e. g. in ܐܲܠܲܨ alaṣ for ܐܷܠܱܨ "afflicted" (§ 174 A); ܫܲܬ݂ܐܸܣܬ݂ܵܐ for ܫܷܬ݂ܣܬ݂ܳܐ "foundation"; ܦܲܥܪܵܐ for ܦܷܥܪܴܐ "cavern"; ܪܲܗܜܵܐ for ܪܷܗܜܳܐ "course, run"; and in several others that have a guttural for the middle letter.
A š, immediately followed by another consonant, sometimes occasions e instead of a: ܐܷܫܟܱ݁ܚ, ܡܶܫܟܱ݁ܚ instead of aškaḥ, maškaḥ "find" (§ 164); ܡܶܫܬܻܝܬ݂ܳܐ "texture", contrasted with ܡܱܪܕܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ "course"; ܡܷܫܬܾ݁ܘܬ݂ܳܐ "feast" (but ܡܱܫܬܝܴܐ the same) overagainst ܡܱܪܕܽܘܬ݂ܐ "chastisement"; ܬܷܫܘܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ "bed", ܬܷܫܡܶܫܬܴ݁ܐ "service", contrasted with ܬܱܟ݂ܣܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ "covering", ܬܱܟ݂ܫܷܦ݂ܬܴ݁ܐ "petition" (but ܬܱܫܥܻܝܬܴܐ "narration"): notice farther ܐܷܫܬܴ݁ܐ, ܐܷܫܬܻ݁ܝ, ܐܷܫܜܳܪܴܐ (§ 51). Similarly s in ܒ݂ܣܬܱ݁ܪ "behind", from ܣܬܱܪ + ܒ, where according to other analogies ba was to be expected.
ē. § 46. Within the word an ē has sometimes been produced through the quiescing of a consonantal ܐ, as in ܒܹܐܪܴܐ "well"; ܪܹܝܫܳܐ or ܪܹܫܳܐ "head"; ܢܹܐܦܴܐ "stone", ܟܹܐܢܳܐ, ܟܹܐܝܢ, or ܟܹܝܢ "right, just" (§ 98 C). In an open syllable ē is, without regard for etymology, expressed freely by ܐ, or even not expressed at all (and in the same way the Greek αι and ε are dealt with: thus even ܩܹܐܪܣܴܐ (qērsā = καιρός), while in a closed syllable ܝ (or even ܐܝ) is set down by preference: In later times ܝ is more prevalent; e. g. the old form ܢܦܐܫܐ, becomes later ܢܦܹܝܫܳܐ ne̊fēshā "refreshment, recovery"; and ܠܡܹܐܢܐ λιμένα "harbour" takes later the form ܠܡܺܝܢܳܐ, &c.
- ܦܘܪ̈ܣܝܐ "Persians" is probably an intentional defacement of the other and still more useful form ܦܴܪ̈ܣܴܝܷܐ: The hostile nation was denoted by a word which means "pudenda".
- ܡܶܫܢܳܐ "a pledge" is a borrowed word from the Assyrian, and accordingly does not belong to this class.