Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/73

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§ 50.
— 35 —

oculo = coram) even in an open syllable ܠܥܹܝܢܘ̈ܗ̄ܝ, ܠܥܹܢܘ̈ܗ̄ܝ &c. coram eo; but only in the prepositional use; for example, otherwise, ܠܥܱܝ̈ܢܱܘܗ̄ܝ "to his eyes".

ܡܱܘܬ݁ܗܘܿܢ, ܡܱܘܬ݁ܝ "their, my death", ܥܱܝܢܟ݂ܘܿܢ "your eye", &c. form no exception, for in these cases it was only in the last development that the syllable became a closed one. Thus also is explained perhaps the retention of the ai before suffixes, in forms like ܡܱ̈ܠܟܱܝܟ݁ (from malkaikā), ܡܱ̈ܠܟܱ݁ܝܢ (from malkainā) "thy, our kings", and in verbal forms like ܓܠܱܝܬ݁ and ܓܠܱܝܢ (from ge̊laitā, ge̊lainā) "thou didst reveal", "we revealed". In ܠܱܝܬ݁ "is not", from ܠܴܐ ܐܻܝܬ݂, the diphthong is of more recent origin. On the other hand we have simplification in ܬܘܿܪܬܴ݁ܐ, ܬܽܘܪܬ݁ܐ "cow", from taure̊thā, and in East-Syrian ܠܹܠܝܵܐ, ܠܸܠܝܵܐ lēlyā, lelyā, West-Syrian ܠܠܝܳܐ, usually ܠܻܠܝܳܐ from laile̊yā "night". So too in ܒܹܝܥܬ݂ܳܐ, ܒܹܥܬܴܐ "egg" from baiʿe̊thā, pi. ܒܹ݁ܥܷܐ, ܒܹ̈ܝܥܷܐ.

B. The East-Syrians for the most part write ◌ܵܘ for ◌ܰܘ, and much more rarely ◌ܲܘ. So also in cases where the w is virtually doubled, as in ܚܵܘܝܼ = ܚܰܘܺܝ חַוִּי "pointed out"; ܬܩܵܘܹܐ תְקַוֵּא "thou remainest"; ܟܵܘܹ̈ܐ = ܟܱܘܷ̈ܐ "windows", &c. Thus too in ܡܵܪ̈ܵܘܵܬܵܐ = ܡܳܪ̈ܰܘܳܬܴܐ "Lords", and other plurals of that kind; farther in cases like ܐܲܫܩܵܐܘܼܗ̄ܝ = ܐܱܫܩܱܬܾܘܗ̄ܝ "give ye him to drink"; ܙܟ݂ܵܐܘܼܢܝ = ܙܟܱܐܾܘܢܝ "they overthrew me" (§ 192).

Sometimes on the other hand they write ◌ܲ‍ܝ for ◌ܳ‍ܝ, e. g. for "barefooted", and always in the Imperative ܩܜܘܿܠܲܝܗ̄ܝ = ܩܜܽܘܠܴܝܗ̄ܝ "kill him".

The West-Syrians also write an au produced by ā and u coming together,—with the vowel-sign ◌ܰ, e. g. ܡܱܠܟܱܐ ܗ̄ܘ malkau "is king", although the separate members are ܗܽܘ + ܡܱܠܟܳܐ. With them indeed ܡܱܠܟܳܐ ܗ̄ܘ would have the sound malkōu.

 
Loss of vowels.

LOSS OF VOWELS.

§ 50. A. Final vowels coming immediately after the original tone-syllable have all fallen away. This happened to ā even before the settlement of the orthography, thus ܠܱܢ from lánā "to us" ; ܐܱܢ̄ܬ from á(n)tā "thou" ; ܩܜܰܠܬ݁ from qe̊ṭáltā "hast killed", &c. (but ܡܱܠܟܳܐ malkā "king", &c). Other final vowels too have at quite an early date thus fallen away,

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