without leaving a trace. On the other hand many vowels of this kind are still set down in consonantal character, although they had ceased to be pronounced even in the oldest literary epoch represented by documents (circa 200 A. D.), and are ignored in punctuation. These are:—
(1) ū of the plural in the Perfect and Imperative after consonants: ܩܜܰܠܘ qe̊tal from qe̊tálū; ܩܱܜܶܠܘ, ܐܱܩܜܶܠܘ, ܩܜܘܿܠܘ; ܫܱܒܱ݁ܚܘ "they praised", &c. (but we have the full sound in ܓܠܱܘ ge̊lau, ܓܰܠܻܝܘ gallīu "revealed", &c).
(2) ī of the suffix of the 1st sing, after consonants, thus: ܡܱܠܟܝ malk "my king" from malkī; ܩܱܜܠܱܢܝ "killed me"; ܓܠܴܢܝ, ܓܰܠܝܱܢܝ "revealed me", &c. (but ܡܱܠ̈ܟܱܝ "my kings" ; and also the monosyllables ܒܺܝ "in me", ܠܻܝ "to me", in which no falling away was possible: So too ܟܘܿܠܝܼ, ܟܽܠܻܝ "I wholly", "the whole of me" ["my totality"]).
(3) ī of the suffix of the 3rd sing. m. ܗܝ with the noun: ܡܱܠ݁ܟܱܘܗ̄ܝ malkau from malkauhī "his kings", and with the Verb in cases like ܓܠܴܝܗ̄ܝ, ܢܷܩܜܠܻܝܘܗ̄ܝ, ܩܜܘܿܠܴܝܗ̄ܝ, ܢܷܓܠܷܝܘܗ̄ܝ, no doubt from ge̊lāihī &c.
(4) ī of the 2nd fem. sing. in ܐܱܢ̄ܬ݁ܝ at from a(n)tī "thou" (f.); ܡܱܠܟܷܟܝ malkḗkh from malkḗkhī (both with e?) ܡܱ̈ܠܟܱ݁ܝܟ݁ܝ; ܠܷܟ݂ܝ; ܩܜܰܠܬ݁ܝ; ܫܱܒܱܚܬ݁ܝ, &c.
(5) In the following special cases: in ܡܶܢ ܫܷܠܝ "from quiet" = "suddenly", absolute state of ܫܷܠܝܳܐ from šélī (like פֵּרִי); in ܐܷܡܱܬ݂ܝ "when?" from emmắthai; ܐܷܬ݂ܡܳܠܝ "yesterday" from ethmā́lē; and the derived word ܡܢܳܬܡܳܠܝ "the day before yesterday"; lastly in the much maimed form ܐܷܫܬ݁ܩܱܕܝ (or ܐܷܫܬ݁ܩܱܕ) "last year".B. Even in very ancient MSS. the unpronounced ܝ's are often wanting: a similar ܘ is more rarely omitted. Conversely ܝ, which one was in the habit of so often writing,—apparently without cause,—was in some cases attached parasitically to words ending in a consonant; e. g. there occurs in old manuscripts ܐܠܗܝ for ܐܰܠܴܗ "God" (Construct State); ܐܒܝ for ܐܴܒ "August"; ܪܘܚܝ for ܪܽܘܚ "spirit". Occasionally it is
- Even the hymns of seem to neglect them, as regards the number of syllables.