Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/75

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§§ 51. 52.
— 37 —

employed as a diacritic mark of the 3rd sing. fem. of the Perf. e. g. ܩܜܠܬܝ for ܩܷܜܠܱܬ݂ "she killed". Such an employment of ܝ in the 3rd pl. fem. Perf. has gradually come into full use with the West-Syrians; ܩ̈ܜܰܠܝ "they (f.) killed", for the old ܩܜܠ retained by the East-Syrians (from original qe̊ṭálā, not qe̊ṭálī). The employment of ܝ in the 3rd sing. fem. Imperf.,—coming into view in rather late times,—prevails among the West-Syrians, though not quite so universally; ܬܷܩܜܽܘܠܝ, ܬܩܱܜܶܠܝ "she kills", &c, in order to distinguish it from the 2nd sing, masc, ܬܷܩܜܽܘܠ, ܬܩܱܜܶܠ "thou killest": the Nestorians are completely unacquainted with the ܝ in this usage.

 
New vowels and syllables. Vowel prefixed. (Alaf prosthetic).

NEW VOWELS AND SYLLABLES.

§ 51. An ܐ with a vowel is sometimes prefixed to an initial consonant which has not a full vowel. Thus ܐܷ in ܐܷܫܬܴ݁ܐ "six", ܐܷܫܬܻ݁ܝܢ "sixty", alongside of ܫܬܴ݁ܐ, ܫܬܻ݁ܝܢ; ܐܷܫܜܳܪܴܐ "a written bond" along with ܫܜܳܪܴܐ, and always ܐܷܫܬܻ݁ܝ "drank"; farther ܐܷܟܒܱܪ "already" sometimes for ܟܒܱܪ. Frequently so in Greek words with στ, σπ, like ܐܣܜܪܜܝܐ or ܣܜܪܜܝܐ στρατεία, ܐܣܦܝܪܐ and ܣܦܝܪܐ σπείρα, &c.

The prefix, pretty frequently met with in ancient MSS. before ܪ, is probably to be pronounced ܐܱ; e. g. ܐܪ̈ܚܝܡܐ for ܪ̈ܚܺܝܡܷܐ "Beloved"; ܐܪܕܝܕܐ for ܪܕܺܝܕܳܐ "upper garment"; ܐܪܩܝܥܐ for ܪܩܺܝܥܴܐ[1] "firmament"; ܐܪܥܐ for ܪܥܷܐ "contented", and many others. So too ܐܚܫܡܝܬܐ for ܚܫܳܡܺܝܬܴܐ "a meal" ; ܐܓܠܝܕܐ for ܓܠܻܝܕܳܐ "ice". In the frequently occurring ܐܾܘܪܩܱܥܬ݂ܳܐ the u of the rarer form ܪܽܘܩܥܬ݂ܐ, ܪܽܘܩܱܥ.ܹܬ݂ܳܐ is brought to the front. The early adopted Persian word rāzā ܐܪܙܐ, more rarely ܪܙܐ, ܪܐܙܐ "a secret" seems to have been pronounced with a vowel-prefix, which however is ignored in the pointing.

Auxiliary vowels. § 52. A. The poets sometimes insert an e before ܕ ܠ‍ ܒ‍ after a word ending in a consonant, e. g. ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ "is to them" īth elhōn (with three syllables) = ܐܻܝܬ ܠܗܘܿܢ.


  1. ܐܪܩܝܥܐ is measured as dissyllabic like ܪܩܝܥܐ in Moesinger's Monumenta Syriaca II, 86 v. 152 et passim, but ܐܪܕܝܕܐ, ܐܪܕܝܕܗ as trissyllabic in Jacob of Sarûg, Thamar v. 247, 251.