Thus ܪܹܝܫܳܐ from רַאְשָׁא "head"; ܢܹܐܡܱܪ "says"; ܢܶܐܟ݂ܘܿܠ "eats"; ܐܹܡܱܪ "I say"; ܕܹܒ݂ܳܐ "wolf', from דַאְבָא, ܒܹܐܪܴܐ "a well" (also written ܒܪܐ § 46), and so forth.
On the other hand the ܐ becomes ā in ܥܴܢܳܐ "small cattle", through the influence of the neighbouring gutturals from עַאְנָא; ܥܴܥܢ̈ܳܬ݂ܳܐ "battlements" from עַאְעיתא; ܥܴܠܷܐ "a certain thorny shrub" from עַאְלא; and similarly ܚܰܢܳܐ "bosom" from חַאְנָא for original הַעְנָא.
In the end of the word we have ܢܹܐ from naʾ. In other cases ◌ܰܐ is retained here according to the analogy of corresponding forms ending in other gutturals, e. g. ܜܡܱܐ "unclean" (§ 100); ܜܰܡܱܐ "polluted"; ܒܱܝܱܐ "consoled" (§ 172), &c.
Of the other gutturals and of r. § 54. ܚ ܗ ܥ and ܪ as final radicals, especially when they close the syllable, transform an ĕ into an ă; thus, ܢܷܕ݁ܰܥ "knows" (compared with ܢܷܬܷ݁ܒ "sits"); ܕܰܒܱܚ "sacrificed", compared with ܩܱܜܶܠ; ܢܒܱܗ "arose", for ne̊veh; ܢܕܰܒܱܪ "leads", for neδabber; ܐܱܘܕܰܥܢܱܢ "we made known"; ܢܒ݂ܰܗܬ݁ܘܿܢ "you arose"; ܦ݂ܪܱܚܬ݂ܳܐ "a bird"; ܕܰܒܱܪܬ݁ܘܿܢ "you led", &c. (§ 170).
In rare cases the transformation of an ܘܿ into a, before these final consonants, has been retained from very remote times, as for instance in ܢܷܦܬܱܚ "opens"; compare on the other hand ܢܷܕܒܘܿܚ "slaughters", &c. (§ 170). In certain cases they have the effect even of transforming a following e (or o?) into a (v. § 169).—On the exchange of a and e in words which have middle gutturals v. § 45.
On the shading off of an a into e through the influence of a sibilant, v. § 45; and of a u into o, effected by a guttural v. §§ 48, 49. In like manner the gutturals, as well as other consonants, particularly emphatic ones, must have brought about a special shading of the vowels in still other instances, without the writing giving much indication of such delicate turns.3. Stronger alterations.
3. STRONGER ALTERATIONS.