Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/87

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§ 71.
— 49 —

is īn, and in the Construct state, ai: the corresponding endings for Feminines are ān, āth.

We give at this point, as an example of the most usual formations, the Adjective ܒܺܝܫ "wicked".

Singular. Plural.
St. abs. St. constr. St. emph. St. abs. St. constr. St. emph.
m. ܒܺܝܫ ܒܺܝܫ ܒܺܝܫܳܐ ܒܺܝܫܺܝܢ ܒܺܝ̈ܫܱܝ ܒܺܝ̈ܫܷܐ
f. ܒܺܝܫܳܐ ܒܺܝܫܱܬ݂ ܒܺܝܫܬܴ݁ܐ ܒܺܝ̈ܫܳܢ ܒܺܝ̈ܫܳܬ݂ ܒܺܝ̈ܫܳܬ݂ܳܐ

Rem. Notice that the absolute state of the feminine singular and the emphatic state of the masculine singular for the most part sound alike.

On ܬ݂ܳܐ and ܬ݂ܶܐ v. § 23 E.

Insertion of ܝ before the feminine ending. § 71. Certain words insert a y (or i, v. § 40 C) before the feminine ending:—

(1) First, those words (in all their forms) which terminate in the suffix ān, ōn, (ūn): e. g. from ܡܩܱܜܠܴܢ "murdering", the feminine sing. abs. state is ܡܩܱܜܠܴܢܝܴܐ, the constr. state ◌́‍ܠܴܢܝܱܬ݂, the emphatic state ◌́‍ܠܴܢܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ; the feminine plural abs. state ◌́‍ܠܴܢܝܳܢ, the constr. state ◌́‍ܠܴܢܝܳܬ݂, the emph. state ◌́‍ܠܴܢܝܳܬ݂ܳܐ. So from ܡܱܠܟܘܿܢܳܐ regulus, we have the feminine ܡܱܠܟܘܿܢܺܝܬ݂ܳܐ &c. This analogy is followed in such old borrowed words as ܐܾܘܡܳܢܝܳܐ τεχνῖτις, and ܡܷܣܟܹܢܝܳܐ πτωχή, pl. ܡܷܣ̈ܟܹܢܝܳܢ, ܡܷܣ̈ܟܹܢܝܳܬ݂ܳܐ (but emphatic state fem. ܡܶܣܟܹܝܬܴ݁ܐ).—Exceptions, ܐ̄ܚܝܳܢܬܴ݁ܐ fem. from ܐ̄ܚܝܳܢܳܐ "related", and fem. from secundus.

(2) Next, the adjective ܙܥܘܿܪ "little" in all its forms (fem.), except in the emphatic state sing.: ܙܥܘܿܪܝܳܐ, ܙܥܘܿܪܝܱܬ (but ܙܥܘܿܪܬܵܐ);—ܙܥܘܿܪ̈ܝܴܢ, ܙܥܘܿܪ̈ܝܬ (?), ܙܥܘܿܪ̈ܝܳܬܴܐ.

(3) Probably it is the same with Nomina agentis of the form ܦܴܥܘܿܠ. For the singular we have ܡܳܪܘܿܕܝܳܐ "rebellious", and the analogously-treated, although Greek, word ܐܴܣܘܿܜܝܳܐ ἀσώτη; for the plural of the absolute state, only ܐܴܣ̈ܘܿܜܝܳܢ. The abs. and construct states of these Nom. ag. almost never appear. In other cases [emph. st. pl.] there occur ܣܴܪ̈ܘܿܚܝܳܬܴܐ "destroying"; ܥܵܒܘܿܪ̈ܝܴܬܳܐ "transitory things"; ܩܳܜܘܿܠܝܴ̈ܬܳܐ "murderous", &c. Forms like ܡܳܝ̈ܘܿܬܴܬܳܐ "mortal" &c, without y, are of less frequent occurrence.

(4) So too, in the plural of feminine forms of Diminutives in ܘܿܣ (ܕܳܪܘܿܣܬܴܐ "yard [court]", pl. ܕܳܪ̈ܣܝܳܬܴܐ) ܝ is inserted, as also in the case of a number of other substantives, which before the feminine ending have