Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/88

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§§ 72—74.
— 50 —

a consonant preceded by a long vowel, a doubled consonant, or two consonants. Thus ܡܷܐܣܳܪܬܴ݁ܐ "bundle", pl. ܡܶܐܣܳܪ̈ܝܴܬܴܐ; ܟܘܿܬܻ݁ܝܢܳܐ "tunic", pl. ܟܘܿܬܻ݁ܝܢ̈ܝܳܢ, ܟܘܿܬܻ݁ܝܢ̈ܝܳܬ݂ܐ; ܕܽܘܟ݁ܬ݂ܐ (דֻכְּתָא) "place"; pl. ܕܽܩ̈ܟ݁ܝܳܢ, ܕܽܘ̈ܟ݁ܝܳܬܴܐ; ܕܽܘܢܟ݁ܬܴܐ "tail"; pl. ܕܽܢ̈ܟ݁ܝܴ̈ܬܳܐ, and many others. This formation is of more frequent occurrence in later times. Some have secondary forms, e. g. ܣܱܟܻ݁ܝܢܳܐ "knife"; pl. ܣܱܟܻ݁ܝ̈ܢܳܬܴܐ and ܣܱܟܻ݁ܝ̈ܢܝܳܬܴܐ (as well as ܣܱܟܻ݁ܝ̈ܢܳܐ).

Pl. emph. st. in aiyā. § 72. The plural-ending in the emphatic state was properly aiyā (from ai + ā): this ending ◌ܰ‍ܝܳܐ is still shown in the short words ܒ̈ܢܱܝܳܐ "sons"; ܫ̈ܢܱܝܳܐ "years"; ܙ̈ܢܱܝܳܐ "kinds"; ܬܕܰܝ̈ܳܐ "breasts"; ܐܻܝ̈ܕܰܝܴܐ (= יְדַיָא § 40 C) as well as ܐܻܝ̈ܕܶܐ "hands"; ܐܱܦܱ݁ܝ̈ܳܐ "curtain" (= ܐܱܦܷ̈ܐ "face"). For all these words v. § 146.

Aiyā appears farther in the plural emphatic state,—through blending the final vowel of the root,—in adjectives and participles in ē and ai ( in Emph. st. sing.), with the emphatic ending: ܩܫܷܐ "hard" (Emph. st. ܩܱܫܝܳܐ), ܩ̈ܫܱܝܳܐ; ܫܳܜܝܳܐ (st. abs. ܫܳܜܶܐ) "fool", ܫܴ̈ܜܰܝܳܐ; ܡܫܱܪܱܝ "lamed", ܡܫܱܪܱ̈ܝܴܐ, &c.

So with the substantives ܓܰܕܝܴܐ "kid", ܓ̈ܕܰܝܴܐ; ܡܱܢܝܳܐ "a talent (weight)", ܡ̈ܢܱܝܳܐ; ܩܱܢܝܳܐ "reed", ܩ̈ܢܱܝܳܐ; ܡܷܥܝܳܐ "bowels", ܡ̈ܥܱܝܳܐ; and so with the Plur. tantum ܡܱܝ̈ܳܐ "water" (and ܫܡܱܝܳܐ, ܫ̈ܡܱܝܳܐ "heaven" § 146); farther ܓܽܘܪܝܴܐ "young (of animal)", ܓܪ̈ܰܝܴܐ (later formation ܓܽܘܪ̈ܰܘܳܬܴܐ § 79 A); ܕܽܘܡܝܳܐ "image", ܕܡܱܝ̈ܳܐ "price" (later formation ܕܽܘܡ̈ܝܷܐ "images").—But not with the abstract nouns—ܨܶܪܝܴܐ "a rent", ܨܶܪ̈ܝܷܐ (as against ܨܰܪܝܴܐ "one who is torn", ܨܪ̈ܰܝܴܐ); ܥܱܪܝܴܐ "cold", ܥܱܪ̈ܝܻܐ.

Abs. and constr. states (corresponding). § 73. In the absolute state of the plural, such substantives have īn, so far as they appear in it at all: ܓ̈ܕܺܝܢ; ܡ̈ܢܺܝܢ; ܩ̈ܡܺܝܢ; ܕܡܺܝ̈ܢ; ܡܺܝ̈ܢ. Thus too the pronunciation of the very rare word ܫ̈ܡܝܢ must be še̊mīn and not še̊mēn. But the Adjectives have ēn: ܩܫܷܝܢ, ܫܳܜܶܝܢ; ܡܫܱܪܷܝܢ (from ܡܫܱܪܷܐ and from ܡܫܱܪܱܝ) &c.

In the construct state of the plural, such Substantives have ai: ܕ̈ܡܱܝ; ܡ̈ܥܱܝ; ܡܱ̈ܝ; ܫܡܱܝ̈; but the Adjectives, yai: ܩܫ̈ܝܱܝ; ܪ̈ܳܥܝܱܝ "herdsmen"; ܩܳܪ̈ܝܱܝ "criers": ܡܚܰܩ̈ܝܱܝ "pointing out", &c. (cf. with this section § 145 K infra).

Plur. from enlarged forms in ān. § 74. The following Masculines form their plural from enlarged forms in ān. They are to some extent words of closely related meaning:—