him or her, nor be adjudged by exceptional courts or commissions created for such purpose.
- (5) No person shall be required to confess guilt or testify against himself or herself or his or her spouse or partner, or any other relative within the fourth degree of consanguinity or the second degree of affinity.
- A confession shall be valid only if given without coercion of any kind.
- (6) No person shall be punished for acts or omissions not defined under preexisting laws as a crime, offense or infraction.
- (7) No person shall be placed on trial based on the same facts for which such person has been judged previously.
- (8) Every person shall request from the State the restoration or remediation of a legal situation adversely affected by unwarranted judicial errors, and unjustified delay or omissions. The foregoing is without prejudice to the right of the individual to seek to hold the magistrate or judge personally liable, and that of the State to take action against the same.
Article 50: Everyone shall freely transit by any means throughout the national territory, to change his or her domicile and residence, to leave and return to the Republic, to move his or her goods or belongings within the country and to bring his or her goods into or remove them from the country, subject only to such limitations as may be prescribes by law. In cases involving the granting of a concession, the law shall provide for the circumstances in which an alternate route must be provided. Venezuelans shall enter the country without need for authorization of any kind.
No act of the Public Power may establish against Venezuelans the penalty of banishment from the national territory.
Article 51: Everyone has the right to petition or make representations before any authority or public official concerning matters within their competence, and to obtain a timely and adequate response.