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- Fishes, kidneys of, represented by Corpora Wolffiana in the human embryo, 11; male, hatching ova in their mouths, 163; receptacles for ova possessed by, 208; relative size of the sexes in, 335; freshwater, of the tropics, 343; protective resemblances in, 344; change of colour in, 344; nest-building, 345; spawning of, 345; sounds produced by, 347, 566; continued growth of, 485.
- Flamingo, age of mature plumage, 483.
- Flexor pollicis longus, similar variation of, in man, 42.
- Flint tools, 145.
- Flints, difficulty of chipping into form, 49.
- Floresuga mellivora, 443.
- Florida, Quiscalus major in, 248.
- Flounder, coloration of the, 344.
- Flower, W. H., on the abductor of the fifth metatarsal in apes, 42; on the position of the Seals, 150; on the Pithecia monachus, 201; on the throat-pouch of the male bustard, 373.
- Fly-catchers, colours and nidification of, 455.
- Fœtus, human, woolly covering of the, 19; arrangement of the hair on, 152.
- Food, influence of, upon stature, 31.
- Foot, prehensile power of the, retained in some savages, 52; prehensile, in the early progenitors of man, 160.
- Foramen, supra-condyloid, exceptional occurrence of in the humerus of man, 21, 43; in the early progenitors of man, 160.
- Forbes, D., on the Aymara Indians, 34; on local variation of colour in the Quichuas, 196; on the hair-lessness of the Aymaras and Quichuas, 561; on the long hair of the Aymaras and Quichuas, 559, 580.
- Forel, F., on white young swans, 282.
- Formica rufa, size of the cerebral ganglia in, 54.
- Fossils, absence of, connecting man with the apes, 156.
- Fowl, occurrence of spurs in the female, 227; game, early pugnacity of, 239; Polish, early development of cranial peculiarities of, 239; variations in plumage of, 385; examples of correlated development in the, 426; domestic, breeds and subbreeds of, 460.
- Fowls, spangled Hamburgh, 229, 238; inheritance of changes of plumage by, 229; sexual peculiarities in, transmitted only to the same sex, 230; loss of secondary sexual characters by male, 231; Polish, origin of the crest in, 231; period of inheritance of characters by, 238; cuckoo-, 238; development of the comb in, 239; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247; courtship of, 417; mongrel, between a black Spanish cock and different hens, 427; pencilled Hamburgh, difference of the sexes in, 447; Spanish, sexual differences of the comb in, 447; spurred, in both sexes, 449.
- Fox, W. D., on some half-tamed wild ducks becoming polygamous, and on polygamy in the guinea-fowl and canary-bird, 220; on the proportion of the sexes in cattle, 247; on the pugnacity of the peacock, 364; on a nuptial assembly of magpies, 406; on the finding of new mates by crows, 407; on partridges living in triplets, 409; on the pairing of a goose with a Chinese gander, 415.
- Foxes, wariness of young, in hunting districts, 80; black, 540.
- Fraser, C., on the different colours of the sexes in a species of Squilla, 271.
- ——, G., colours of Thecla, 312.
- Frere, Hookham, quoting Theognis on selection in mankind, 29.
- Fringilla cannabina, 394.
- —— ciris, age of mature plumage in, 483.
- —— cyanea, age of mature plumage in, 483.
- —— leucophrys, young of, 486.
- —— spinus, 415.
- —— tristis, change of colour in, in spring, 393; young of, 485.
- Fringillidæ, rssemblance of the females of distinct species of, 470.