247, 480, iv. 94, vii. 386, 453, 8th ser. i. 430, 452, ii. 53, 324, 472. For personal impressions and estimates of Froude as a writer and as an historian, see Contemp. Review, lxvii. 17-28 (Mrs. Alexander Ireland); Quarterly Review, clxxxii. 181; Scribner's Mag. xvii. 149 (Augustine Birrell); Nation, liv. 318 (E. L. Godkin), and lix. 378, 401 (M. D. Conway); North American Review, clix. 677 (Goldwin Smith); Nineteenth Century, October 1895 (W. S. Lilly), and September 1898 (Frederic Harrison; reprinted in Harrison's Ruskin, Mill, &c. 1899, pp. 235-256); National Review, January 1901 (Leslie Stephen); Froude and his Critics (Westminster Review, cxxxviii. 174.]
FYFFE, CHARLES ALAN (1845–1892), historian, was the son of Lawrence Hay Fyffe, M.D. of Blackheath, by Mary Prudence, daughter of John Urd. He was born at Lee Park, Blackheath, on 3 Dec. 1845, and was educated at Christ's Hospital, whence he obtained an open exhibition at Balliol College, Oxford, 1864. He graduated B.A. in 1868 and M.A. in 1870. In 1871 he was elected a fellow of University College, and for many years acted as bursar. Fyffe early developed a strong bent for politics, adopting pronouncedly liberal views, and was president of the Union Society in 1867. He acted as correspondent to the 'Daily News' during the first part of the Franco-German war, and was in Paris during the commune, where he narrowly escaped execution, being taken for a spy.
He entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn (10 June 1873), but was transferred to the Inner Temple (26 May 1876), from which inn he was called to the bar on 10 May following; he joined the south-west circuit, but never practised. In 1875 he published a small school history of Greece in the form of a primer, which satisfied a need and sold largely. Thus encouraged, he entered upon a larger task in the writing of the 'History of Modern Europe.' The first volume appeared in 1880, the second in 1886, and the third and last in 1890. As a brilliant and skilful sketch of the political history of modern Europe this work has not yet been surpassed, and it passed through many editions.
Fyffe held decided views as a land law reformer, and was one of the founders of the free land league; he was an unsuccessful candidate for the city of Oxford in the radical interest at the general election in 1885.
Late in 1891 an unsubstantiated charge ruined his health, and his promising career was cut short by his death at his residence in Kensington on 19 Feb. 1892. He was buried at Buncton in Sussex.
He married, on 7 June 1883, Henrietta Frances Arnaud, only child of Waynflete Arnaud Blagden of Holmbush Ashington, Sussex, by whom he left three children.
[Times, 20 Feb. 1892; Academy, February 1892; private information.]
GALLENGA, ANTONIO CARLO NAPOLEONE (1810–1895), author and journalist, the eldest son of a Piedmontese of good family from Castellamonte in the Canavese, a district of the province of Ivrea, was born at Parma on 4 Nov. 1810. He was sent to school at the age of five and graduated at the university of Parma at eighteen. The excitement of politics drew him from the study of medicine when the news of the French revolution of 1830 roused all Italy. For a few months at the commencement of 1831 young Gallenga was 'a conspirator, a state prisoner, a combatant and a fugitive, and for the five ensuing years an exile' (Episodes of my Second Life, i. 3). He rashly thought it would further the aims of la giovine Italia to take the life of King Carlo Alberto. 'Supplied with a passport, money, and letters by Mazzini, he proceeded to Turin in August 1833 under the false name of Louis Mariotti' (Gallenga, History of Piedmont, iii. 338; Mazzini's own story is told in his Scritti editi ed inediti, iii. 340-4). Gallenga waited two months in unaided solitude for the opportunity, which fortunately never came, to strike the blow which he had thought would be heroic, but which he afterwards 'learnt to execrate as a crime' (Episodes, ii. 272). He travelled in Provence and Burgundy, lived in Corsica for two years, and was for some time in Malta and Tangier, earning a precarious livelihood by teaching. He left Gibraltar for New York on 15 Aug. 1836, supplied with one or two letters of introduction, little money, and a very slight knowledge of English. He retained the name of Luigi Mariotti, under which he was known for many years. Befriended at Cambridge, by Edward Everett, the American scholar, Gallenga became professor at a college for young ladies, published a volume of Italian verse (1836), reprinted at London in 1844 as 'Oltremonte