Page:Dictionary of National Biography. Sup. Vol II (1901).djvu/408

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Harrowby
Hart
396

Society, of which he became a vice-president.

In 1888 Harris issued his egotistical 'Autobiography ' (London, 8vo) for private circulation. It consists chiefly of extracts from his diary, which he kept regularly from 1832, and contains a preface by his friend (Sir) Benjamin Ward Richardson [q. v. Suppl.] He died at Northolt in Middlesex on 15 Nov. 1890, at his residence, Iselipps, an old manor-house, which he had bought and enlarged. On 12 Dec. 1848 he married at Bathwick Church, Bath, Elizabeth, only surviving child of George Innes (d. 17 July 1842), master of the King's School at Warwick and rector of Hilperton in Wiltshire.

Besides the works already mentioned, Harris was the author of: 1. 'The True Theory of Representation in a State,' London, 1852, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1857. 2 'Civilization considered as a Science, in relation to its Essence, its Elements, and its End,' London, 1861, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1872. 3. 'Principia Prima Legum; or, an Examination and Analysis of the Elementary Principles of Law,' London, 1865, 8vo (only part i. published). 4. 'The Theory of the Arts; or, Art in relation to Nature, Civilization, and Man,' London, 1869, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. 'Supernatural Phenomena : Tests adapted to determine the Truth of Supernatural Phenomena,' London, 1874, 8vo. He contributed many papers to the 'Journal of the Anthropological Society' and to 'Modern Thought.' He wrote numerous legal biographies for the 'Law Magazine and Law Review,' including those of Lord Westbury, Lord Cranworth, Lord-chief-baron Pollock, and Lord Wensleydale.

[Harris's Autobiography; Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1890–1, xx. 199-200; The Biograph, 1880, iv. 95–100; Rugby School Reg. 1884, i. 141; Men of the Time, 1887; Chambers's Short Memoir of George Harris (the elder), 1856.]

E. I. C.

HARROWBY, Earl of. [See Ryder, Dudley Francis Stuart, 1831–1900.]

HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM (1835–1898), medical journalist and reformer, the second son of Septimus Hart, dentist, was born at Knightsbridge, London, on 26 June 1835. He was educated at the City of London school, where he gained, among other prizes, the Chamberlain Scott theology prize, though, as a Jew, he restricted his answers to the two questions dealing with the Old Testament. He became captain of the school and Lambert Jones scholar at the early age of thirteen, and was thus eligible for election at Queens' College, Cambridge. Religious disabilities decided him not to enter the university, and he obtained permission to employ his school scholarship for the study of medicine. He entered as a student at St. George's Hospital, receiving part of his medical education at Mr. Samuel Lane's school of medicine in Grosvenor Place, where he carried off all the prizes, and was appointed a demonstrator in his third year.

He was admitted a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1856, and held the office of house surgeon at St. Mary's Hospital, afterwards becoming associated for a short time with Mr. William Coulson in the general practice which he carried on in Frederick Place, Old Jewry. For two years he acted as surgical registrar and demonstrator of anatomy at St. George's Hospital, and on 8 Feb. 1859 he was appointed junior surgeon at the West London Hospital, becoming full surgeon on 12 Sept. 1860, and resigning 10 Feb. 1863. He then returned to St. Mary's Hospital as ophthalmic surgeon (1863-8), aural surgeon (1865-1868), and dean of the medical school (1863-1868).

Hart's editorial labours began in 1863, when he was employed to read and correct the proofs, and to assist in the literary department of the 'Lancet,' but his literary work commenced when, as a boy, he wrote articles in 'Good Words,' and notably one in 'Fraser's Magazine' in March 1854 on the British Jews, which attracted notice. In 1866 the council of the British Medical Association invited him to edit the 'British Medical Journal,' a position he and filled with the highest credit until his death. For many years Hart was on intimate terms with George Smith, head of the firm of Smith, Elder, & Co., and he advised Smith in the publication of medical literature, which the firm began in 1872. For many years, too, he edited for Smith, Elder, & Co. two weekly periodicals, the 'Medical Record,' which was started in January 1873, and the 'Sanitary Record,' which began in July 1874. The 'Medical Record' gained repute in medical circles by the copiousness of its reports of foreign medical practice. It was Hart who first brought to Smith's notice the possibilities of developing the Apollinaris spring.

He held the office of president of the Harveian Society of London in 1868, and in 1893 the honorary degree of D.C.L. was conferred upon him by the university of Durham. Hart died at Brighton on 7 Jan. 1898; his body was cremated at Woking. A three-quarter-length portrait by Frank Holl, R.A., was painted in 1883 by subscription, and