the staff of ‘Punch’ and contributed to several short-lived rival publications, such as ‘Puck,’ ‘The Great Gun,’ ‘Joe Miller the Younger,’ and ‘The Man in the Moon,’ as well as to the ‘Illustrated London News.’ After a time he became heartily weary of comic draughtsmanship and professional pun-making, and devoted himself once more to landscape painting. As early as 1830, while still living at Brighton, he had contributed to London exhibitions, and had sent six pictures to the Royal Academy and twelve to the Suffolk Street Gallery between that year and 1851. In 1856 he had three water-colours at Suffolk Street, and in 1859 an oil-painting, ‘Smugglers waiting for a Lugger,’ attracted some attention at the Academy. In 1863 Hine was elected an associate of the Institute of Painters in Water-colours, and exhibited ‘St. Paul's from Fleet Street.’ He was elected a full member in 1864, and exhibited in the following year two Dorsetshire subjects, ‘Durlstone Head’ and ‘Nine Barrow Down.’ From that time onwards he was a regular contributor to the exhibitions at the Institute (since 1884 Royal Institute) of Painters in Water-colours, of which he was the vice-president from 1888 to 1895. Some of his more important pictures were: ‘Lewes from the Town Mill,’ ‘On the Downs near Lewes,’ ‘Swanage Bay,’ ‘Cliffs at Cuckmere,’ ‘In Cowdray Park,’ ‘Haymaking,’ ‘Corfe Castle,’ ‘Moonlight, Shoreham,’ and ‘Fittleworth Common.’ Some of these were sent in 1878 to the Paris Exhibition.
After his marriage in 1840, Hine spent most of his life in London or the northern suburbs; he resided at Highgate from 1856 to 1868, and at Hampstead from 1868 to the time of his death. He painted pictures of London, but his favourite scenery was always that of Sussex, in which he had been born and bred. He continued to paint the downs and the south coast with fresh charm and unabated force, even after he had passed his eightieth year, and several of his water-colours were exhibited at the institute in the year of his death, which took place at Rosslyn Hill, Hampstead, on 16 March 1895. In 1840 he married Mary Ann, daughter of John Egerton, a coach-master. His style was founded especially on that of Copley Fielding. He rendered with great success the wide spaces and sweeping curves of the downs, generally in summer or early autumn weather, in glowing sunlight or with sunset and twilight effects. He painted most frequently on the downs at the back of Brighton, and near Lewes and Eastbourne, or along the coast from Rottingdean to Cuckmere Haven. His pictures sold well, and enabled him to support a family of ten daughters and four sons. Two of his sons have inherited his talent for art, Mr. Harry Hine being a well-known member of the Institute, while Mr. William Egerton Hine is art master at Harrow School.
[Magazine of Art, 1893, p. 87, article by Frederick Wedmore, with portrait and illustrations; Athenæum, 23 March 1895; Black and White, 23 March 1895, with portrait; Journal of Decorative Art, May 1895, with portrait; Spielmann's History of Punch, pp. 414–17; Mrs. M. E. King's Round about a Brighton Coach Office, 1896; Graves's Dict. of Artists; private information.]
HIRST, THOMAS ARCHER (1830–1892), mathematician, born at Heckmondwike in Yorkshire on 22 April 1830, was the youngest son of Thomas Hirst (d. 1842), a woolstapler, by his wife, a daughter of John Gates, a blanket manufacturer of Heckmondwike. About 1835 his father retired from business and removed to Fieldhead near Wakefield. In 1840 Thomas entered the West Riding proprietary school at Wakefield, and in 1846 was articled to Richard Carter, a land agent and surveyor at Halifax. At Carter's office he met John Tyndall [q. v.], who was then Carter's principal assistant. Tyndall became his lifelong friend, and exercised a deep influence on his scientific studies. In 1849 Hirst followed Tyndall to Marburg to study mathematics, physics, and chemistry. After three years at that university he obtained the degree of Ph.D. Subsequently, after spending a short time at Gottingen, where he made the acquaintance of Carl Friedrich Gauss, and worked at magnetism under Wilhelm Eduard Weber, he went to Berlin, and in the session of 1852-3 attended lectures by Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, Jakob Steiner, and Ferdinand Joachimstal. His intercourse with Steiner did much to determine the ultimate bent of his mathematical investigations.
In 1853 Hirst succeeded Tyndall at Queenwood College in Hampshire as lecturer in mathematics and natural philosophy. He married in 1854, and resigned his post on account of his wife's ill-health in 1856. He spent the winter of 1857-8 at Paris, attending lectures by Michel Chasles and Gabriel Lame, and passed the following winter at Rome. While travelling in Italy he made the acquaintance of Luigi Cremona, with whom he became intimate. Returning to England in 1860 he was appointed mathematical master of University College School. The experience in educational methods which he gained there, and his experiments on teaching geometry apart from Euclid, led