by M. A. Duquesnoy,' 1802, viii. 359. 53. 'Observations on the Poor Bill introduced by Mr. Pitt; written 1797, published 1828, viii. 440. 54. 'Official Aptitude maximised; Expense minimised,' 1816, v. 263. 55. 'Principles of International Law,' written 1787–9, ii. 535 (see M. Nys in 'London Quarterly Review' for April 1885). Political Economy: 56. 'A Manual of Political Economy,' iii. 31 (this was also printed as part of 'Théorie des Récompenses,' 14 note). 57. 'Defence of Usury,' published 1816. written 1787, iii. 1. 58. 'Observations on the Restrictive and Prohibitory Commercial System,' 1821, iii. 85. 59. 'Letters to Lord Pelham on Penal Colonisation,' 1803, iv. 173. 60. 'Supply without Burden,' printed 1793, published 1795, ii. 585. 61. 'A Protest against Law Taxes,' printed 1793, published 1795. ii. 573. 62. 'Defence of Economy against Burke,' 1810–17; 'Defence of Economy against Rose,' 1810-17, written in April and May 1810 (see preface published in 'Pamphleteer,' 1817), v. 278. 63. 'A Plan for the Conversion of Stock into Note Annuities.' written 1800, iii. 105. Miscellaneous: 64. 'The Usefulness of Chemistry. Translated from Hergman,' 1783. 65. 'A Fragment on Ontology,' written 1813, 1814, and 1821, viii. 213. 67. 'Essay on Logic.' viii. 213. 67. 'Essay on Language,' viii. 295. 68. 'Fragment on Universal Grammar,' viii. 339. 69. 'Chrestomathia,' part i. 1816, vol. i. 1817 (see also 'Essai sur la Nomenclature et la Classification: Ouvrage extrait du Chrestomathia par J. Bentham). 70. 'Church of Englandism and its Catechism examined,' printed 1817, published 1818. 71. 'Summary View of a Work intituled "Not Paul but Jesus." By Gamaliel Smith,' 1821. 72. 'Not Paul but Jesus. By Gamaliel Smith.' 1823. 73. 'The Book of Church Reform, containing the most essential part of "Mr. B.'s Church of Englandism examined."' 1831. 74. 'Mother Church of England relieved by Bleeding, and extracted from B.'s "Church of Englandism.' 1823.
The following are Dumont's chief works based on Bentham's manuscripts: l.'Traité de la Législation Civile et Pénale,' Paris, 1802. 2. 'Théorie des Peines et des Récompenses,' Londres. 1811. 3. 'Tactique des Assemblées Législatives,' Genève, 1816. 4. 'Traité des Preuves Judiciaires,' Paris, 1823. 5. 'De l'Organisation Judiciaire et Codification,' Paris. 1823. There are an edition published at Brussels in 1829 in three volumes; a Spanish translation in fourteen volumes; and a Portuguese translation.
[Bowring's Life in vols. x. and xi. of Collected Works; Bain's Lives of James Mill and J. S. Mill; Memoir of the Life of Sir Samuel Romilly; Grote's Private Life; Parton's Life of Aaron Burr; Colls's Utilitarianism Unmasked (1844); Annual Biography and Obituary, 1833; Cunningham's Lives of Eminent Englishmen, viii. 432; there is a sketch—almost a caricature—of Bentham in Parry's Last Days of Lord Byron; and in Edinburgh Review (vol. lxxviii.) is a valuable article by the late Professor Empson]
BENTHAM, JOSEPH (1594–1671), divine, must, from his age at death (seventy-seven in 1671), have been born in 1593–4. He is designated 'Joseph Bentham, master of arts and preacher of God's word at Weekeley' in Northamptonshire, in his first book, entitled 'The Societie of the Saints, or a Treatise of Good-fellowes and their Good-fellowship: delivered in the Lecture at Kettering in Northamptonshire, in Fourteene Sermons, with some additions,' 1638. This wise and witty treatise is dedicated to various Montagues, children of Edward, Lord Montague of Boughton, who had been and still was 'a bountiful patron' to him. He had been induced to publish this book by Bolton and Estwick. A still more characteristic book is 'Χοροθεόλογον, or Two Breife but UsefuU Treatises: the one touching the Office and Quality of the Ministry of the Gospell; the other of the Nature and Accidents of Mixt Dancing. In this later the Questions which concern the Lawfulnesse or Expediency of Mixed Dancing are professedly handled and resolved,' 1657. In this he describes himself as 'sometime rector of the church of Broughton in Northamptonshire, now pastour of Neather Winchingham [Neather Wickenden in second title] in the county of Bucks.' From the local registers it is found that, in agreement with this title-page, 'Josephus Bentham Cl. Comp. pro Primit. 14 Jan. 1631,' at Broughton. In the interval between his two publications he had met with many troubles as a royalist. According to Bridges's 'Northamptonshire' (ii. 86), 'This gentleman [Bentham] was sequestered by order of the parliament committee on 13 July 1643, for his loyalty, conformity, and exemplary life; by which vices, as the committee told him, he did more harm to God's cause than twenty other men, and should therefore fare the worse for it. His wife and five children were with himself turned out of doors, with this additional circumstance of inhumanity, that he was not permitted to take a single peck of corn out of his barn to make bread for his family; nor did his wife ever recover her fifths, though she several times petitioned the committee for them. He was succeeded by John Bazeley,