Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 50.djvu/191

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force. After several days' indecision, Hampton marched westward to unite his forces with Wilkinson's. To prevent the junction, Salaberry posted himself at Chateauguay on Hampton's route in an exceedingly strong position, defended by swamps and woods. Although he had little more than three hundred men at his disposal, he succeeded on 25 Oct. in repulsing the American attack and in forcing Hampton to retreat from Canada altogether. This action gained for Salaberry the name of the ‘Canadian Leonidas.’ On learning of it, Wilkinson deemed it prudent to abandon offensive operations, and Lower Canada was secured from further invasion. In recognition of his services, Salaberry was made a companion of the Bath. After the conclusion of the war he turned his attention to politics, and in 1818 was called to the legislative chamber. He died on 26 Feb. 1829 at his residence at Chambly, near Montreal. By his wife, Mlle. Hertel de Rouville, whom he married early in 1812, he had four sons and three daughters. His sons were: Alphonse Melchior, deputy adjutant-general of militia for Lower Canada; Louis Michel, Maurice, and Charles René. His portrait was painted by Dickinson and engraved by Durand.

[Morgan's Celebrated Canadians, pp. 496–200; James's Military Occurrences of the Late War, i. 306–18; Christie's late War in Canada, pp. 90–1, 141–7; David's Héros de Chateauguay, 2nd edit. 1883; Gent. Mag. 1813 ii. 617, 1814 i. 169, 276.]

E. I. C.

SALCOT, JOHN (d. 1557), bishop of Salisbury. [See Capon, John.]

SALE, GEORGE (1697?–1736), orientalist, son of Samuel Sale, citizen and merchant of London, was probably born about 1697. Kent is said to have been his native county, but the further statement that he was educated at King's School, Canterbury, is not corroborated by the school archives. On 24 Oct. 1720 he was admitted a student of the Inner Temple. He does not seem to have been called to the bar, but practised as a solicitor. At an early period he turned his attention to the study of Arabic, but Voltaire's statements in the ‘Dictionnaire Philosophique’ (arts. ‘Alcoran,’ ‘Arot and Marot’), that he spent ‘twenty-five years among the Arabs’ or ‘twenty-four years near Arabia,’ are quite erroneous. He never left his native country. Gibbon was probably following Voltaire when (chap. xlvi.) he called ‘our honest and learned translator, Sale … half a Mussulman.’ In 1720 the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, whose offices were in the Middle Temple, undertook to print an Arabic translation of the New Testament for the use of the Syrian Christians. Solomon Negri of Damascus had been sent over by the patriarch of Antioch to press the scheme on the society's attention, and it is not improbable that Sale engaged Negri as his first instructor in Arabic. A learned Greek, named Dadichi, of Aleppo, who arrived in England in the summer of 1723, also gave him tuition. Sale so perfected himself in Arabic that on 30 Aug. 1726 he consented, at the society's request, to give his services as one of the correctors of the Arabic New Testament. In November of the same year he was elected a corresponding (i.e. non-subscribing) member, and thenceforward, until 1734, took an active part in the labours of the society. Not only was he the principal worker in the completion of the Arabic New Testament, but he acted as honorary solicitor, auditor, steward at the annual festivals, and general adviser to the society. His relations with the association brought him the acquaintance of many men of note, including John Wesley and Sir Hans Sloane.

Sale did not apparently relinquish his legal work while pursuing his literary labours. His biographer, Davenport, seems to be in error in asserting the contrary. But there is no doubt that, owing to his devotion to oriental studies, his legal business declined. Disraeli says of him, but on what authority does not appear, that he ‘pursued his studies through a life of want … and when he quitted his studies, too often wanted a change of linen, and often wandered in the streets in search of some compassionate friend who would supply him with the meal of the day’ (Miscell. of Lit. ed. 1853, p. 130 n.). This seems an exaggeration. He was, at any rate, able to acquire a small library of ‘rare and beautiful manuscripts in the Persian, Turkish, Arabic, and other languages.’ These he doubtless purchased of the distressed orientals in London, whom he constantly recommended for employment or relief to the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge.

Sale's chief work, on which his claim to remembrance principally rests, is his version of the Koran. This first appeared in November 1734, in a quarto volume, and was dedicated to Lord Carteret. While apologising for delay in its publication, he stated that the work ‘was carried on at leisure times only, amidst the necessary avocations of a troublesome profession.’ As a translator, he had the field almost entirely to himself. The only full translation of the Koran in any modern language previously pub-