by his father. In 1778 he removed to Norwich, but continued to contribute to the Royal Academy portraits, including one of Dr. Crotch the musician, and views of Norwich Cathedral. In 1790 he removed to Bath, where he practised for many years with success as a portrait-painter. A portrait of Judith, countess of Radnor (at Longford Castle), painted in 1821, is a very good example of his work. He is mentioned by Madame d'Arblay in her ‘Journal’ as painting a portrait of Princess Charlotte of Wales. Sanders died at Clifton in 1825. During his residence at Norwich, about 1780, he married Miss Arnold of that town, by whom he left five daughters and one son, John Arnold Sanders, born at Bath about 1801, who practised with some success as a landscape-painter in London, and was popular as a drawing-master; he emigrated to Canada in 1832.
[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Graves's Dict. of Artists, 1760–1893; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. vi. 461, vii. 96, 184; information from Percy E. Clark, esq.]
SANDERS or SANDER, NICHOLAS (1530?–1581), controversialist and historian, was one of the twelve children of William Sanders of Aston, one time high sheriff of Surrey, by Elizabeth Mynes, his wife. His ancestors had been settled in the county of Surrey from the time of King John, first at Sanderstead, and, in the reign of Edward II, at Sander Place, or Charlwood Place, in the parish of Charlwood, where Nicholas was born about 1530. Two of his sisters became nuns of Sion, and a third married Henry Pits, the father of John Pits [q. v.], the author of the ‘De Illustribus Angliæ Scriptoribus.’ Nicholas was admitted scholar of Winchester College in 1540, ‘aged 10’ (Kirby, Winchester Scholars, p. 123). He became scholar of New College, Oxford, 6 Aug. 1546, and fellow 6 Aug. 1548, and graduated B.C.L. in 1551 (Wood, Fasti, i. 132). He gave public lectures on canon law, and in 1557 he delivered the oration at the reception of Cardinal Pole's visitors to the university.
Shortly after the accession of Elizabeth he went abroad (1559) under the guidance of Sir Francis Englefield, who, as Sanders gratefully acknowledged (De Visib. Monarchia), became his main support for the next twelve years. He at first went to Rome, where he was befriended by Cardinal Morone, created doctor of divinity, and ordained priest by Thomas Goldwell [q. v.], bishop of St. Asaph. So high did his reputation stand already that, as early as 10 Nov. 1559 (if we may trust the date assigned to an extract from the letter-book of Sir Thomas Chaloner), the friends of Sanders were urging the king of Spain to obtain for him from the pope a cardinal's hat, that the English might have a man of credit to solicit their causes (Wright, Eliz. i. 7; Cal. State Papers, Foreign, Eliz. No. 236; cf. Strype, Parker, p. 217).
In 1561 he was taken by Stanislaus Hosius, the cardinal legate, to the council of Trent, and he subsequently attended Hosius on his important mission to Prussia, Poland, and Lithuania. At this same time (1563–4) he formed also an intimate friendship with Commendone, then apostolic nuncio to the king of Poland, and afterwards cardinal. From 1565 to 1572 he made his headquarters at Louvain, where his mother was then living in exile. Here he was appointed regius professor of theology at the university; and, in company with a band of English scholars, for the most part Wykehamists like himself, viz. Harding, Stapleton, Dorman, Poyntz, Rastall, and the printer Fowler, he threw himself ardently into the controversy provoked by the famous challenge of Bishop Jewel, and published a series of volumes in both Latin and English. For a few months in 1566 he was at Augsburg in attendance upon Commendone, who was assisting at the imperial diet as cardinal legate; and, shortly afterwards, Sanders and Dr. Thomas Harding were appointed by the pope in consistory as apostolic delegates, with powers to grant to priests in England faculties to absolve from heresy and schism, and were given a special commission to make known in England the papal sentence that under no circumstances could attendance at the Anglican service be tolerated. Lawrence Vaux, the ex-warden of the collegiate church of Manchester, conveyed the commission from Rome to the two priests at Louvain, and at their earnest request Vaux went himself into England, carrying with him from Sanders a manifesto, in the shape of a pastoral letter, which created some considerable stir (Fuller, Church Hist. ed. 1837, ii. 481). Sanders insisted upon the same doctrine in a preface to his ‘Treatise of Images,’ 1567. His great work, ‘De Visibili Monarchia Ecclesiæ,’ the argument of which had been suggested to him in conversations with Commendone, appeared in the summer of 1571, prefaced with a dedication to Pius V, and letters to his three patrons already mentioned, the Cardinals Morone, Commendone, and Hosius, whom he used to call ‘cardinalis meus.’ These epistles are the chief sources of our information regarding Sanders's career up to that date. The book is historically valuable as containing the first attempt to compile a