fication of the Newcastle coalfield, which earned him the Telford medal of the Institute of Civil Engineers in 1842 (‘On Geological Models in connexion with Civil Engineering,’ Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 1841, p. 163; also Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond. iii. 351; and Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd ser. vi. 568). These were issued by James Tennant to colleges and museums in three sizes, accompanied by a descriptive memoir (‘Description of a Series of Geological Models …,’ Newcastle, 1841, 12mo; 2nd edit. Lond. 1875, 12mo), and are of permanent educational value, as well as a witness to Sopwith's accuracy of method. In 1840 he constructed a model, capable of dissection, of the principal Forest of Dean coalfield, which is now, with others of his works, in the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, London. His last scientific memoir was ‘On the Lead-mines of England’ (Proc. Geol. Assoc. i. 1859–63, p. 312). His scientific papers number six in all (Royal Society's Cat. of Scientific Papers, 1800–63, p. 752).
Besides the works mentioned above, Sopwith published: 1. ‘Eight Views of Fountains Abbey … with Description,’ Newcastle, 1832, fol. 2. ‘An Account of the Mining Districts of Alston Moor, Weardale, and Teesdale,’ Alnwick, 1833, 12mo. 3. ‘Description of Monocleid Writing Cabinets,’ Newcastle, 1841?, 8vo. 4. ‘An Account of the Museum of Economic Geology,’ London, 1843, 8vo. 5. ‘The National Importance of preserving Mining Records,’ Newcastle, 1844, 8vo. 6. ‘Education: its Present State and Future Advancement,’ Newcastle, 1853, 8vo. 7. ‘Notes of a Visit to Egypt,’ London, 1857, 8vo. 8. ‘Notes of a Visit to France and Spain,’ Hexham, 1865, 8vo. 9. ‘Education in Village Schools,’ London, 1868, 8vo. 10. ‘Three Weeks in Central Europe,’ London, 1869, 12mo.
[(Sir) B. W. Richardson's Thomas Sopwith, 1891 (containing excerpts from his Diaries, and referred to as Life above); Memoirs in Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. lviii. 345, and Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond. vol. xxxv. Proc. p. 53; Notes and Queries, 9th ser. i. 323. Sopwith's detailed Diaries are now in the possession of his daughter, Mrs. David Chadwick.]
SOROCOLD, THOMAS (1561–1617), divine, born at Manchester in 1561, and educated at the local grammar school, became a batler or student of Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1578, and matriculated on 18 July 1580. He graduated B.A. on 6 Feb. 1582–3, and M.A. on 8 July 1585, and after his ordination became a popular puritan preacher in his native county. In July 1587 he preached in the private chapel of Lord Derby at Lathom House. He was admitted to the rectory of St. Mildred's, Poultry, London, on 22 Oct. 1590, on the presentation of Queen Elizabeth. Sorocold was buried at St. Mildred's on 12 Dec. 1617. He was licensed on 4 Aug. 1592 to marry Susan, daughter of Robert Smith of Sherehog, London; she died in March 1604–5.
Sorocold's ‘Supplications of Saints: A Booke of Praiers and Prayses,’ apparently first published in 1608 (Arber, Stationers' Register, iii. 390), was long popular; at least forty-five editions were published up to 1754. Hearne relates that he remembered a very pious lady who used to give away great numbers yearly to the poor. Dean Hook published a selection from it in his ‘Devotional Library’ (1842).
[Bailey's Memoir in Notes and Queries, 31 July 1886, and Manchester City News, 18 Sept. 1887; Wood's Athenæ Oxon. i. 635; Newcourt's Repertorium, 1708, i. 502; Stanley Papers (Chetham Soc.), ii. 32, 142; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500–1714, iv. 1390; Aston's Manchester Guide, 1804, p. 28; Grosart's Spending of the Money of Robert Nowell, 1877, pp. 170–171; Hazlitt's Collections and Notes, i. 394, ii. 570; Milbourn's Hist. of St. Mildred's, Poultry; Hunter's Oliver Heywood, p. 5; Davies's York Press, p. 357; Liturgies of Queen Elizabeth (Parker Soc.) pp. 622, 666.]
SOTHEBY, SAMUEL (1771–1842), auctioneer and antiquary, born in 1771, was descended from the elder branch of a family settled at Pocklington and Birdsall in Yorkshire. William Sotheby [q. v.], the author, came from a younger branch. Samuel's uncle, John Sotheby (1740–1807), was partner and nephew of Samuel Baker (d. 1778) (see Nichols, Lit. Anecd. iii. 162–3; and Dibdin, Bibliograph. Decameron, iii. 445), who founded at York Street, Covent Garden, in 1744 the first sale-room instituted in this country exclusively for the disposal of books, manuscripts, and prints. In 1774 Baker took George Leigh into partnership, and from 1775 to 1777 the firm was styled S. Baker & G. Leigh. After 1778, when Baker died, Leigh carried on the business alone, but from 1780 to 1800 John Sotheby (Baker's nephew) was associated with him, and the firm was known as Leigh & Sotheby; it became Leigh, Sotheby, & Son in 1800, when John Sotheby's nephew Samuel joined it, and so continued till 1803. After 1803, and until the death of Leigh in 1815, the firm carried on their business at a new address, 145 Strand (Dibdin, op. cit. iii. 18, and Bibliography, a Poem, 1812). John Sotheby died in 1807, and on Leigh's death, eight years later, Samuel continued the concern by himself, moving to 3 Waterloo Street, Strand, about 1817. Soon