Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/254

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at Pisa, and in early life was closely associated with Napoleon and Joseph Bonaparte, the 'two families being at that time closely allied in politics. Pozzo was one of the two delegates sent to the National Assembly in Paris to demand the political incorporation of Corsica in France, and was subsequently one of the Corsican deputies to the Legislative Assembly, where he sat on the benches of the right until the events of August 1792. On his safe return to Corsica he was warmly received by Paoli, but found himself in opposition to the Bonaparte brothers, who were now veering to the Iacobin party. Under the new constitution Pozzo was elected procurer-général-syndic, that is, chief of the civil government, while Paoli commanded the army. With Paoli he refused to obey a summons to the bar of the Convention, and the definite breach with the Bonaparte family, who actively supported the revolutionary authorities, dates from this time. Eventually Paoli and Pozzo accepted foreign help, and from 1794 to 1796, during the English protectorate of Corsica, Pozzo was president of the council of state under Sir Gilbert Elliot. When Napoleon sent troops to occupy the island he was excepted from the general amnesty, and took refuge in Rome, but the French authorities demanded his expulsion, and gave orders for his arrest in northern Italy. After a short stay in London he accompanied in 1798 Sir Gilbert Elliot (now become Lord Minto) on an embassy to Vienna, where he lived for six years and was well received in political circles. Hatred of Napoleon was his dominant passion, and even as an exile of no official standing he was recognized as a dangerous enemy. In 1804 through the influence of Prince Adam Czartoryski he entered the Russian diplomatic service, and was employed in 1805 as Russian commissioner with the Anglo-Neapolitan, and in 1806 with the Prussian army. He was entrusted with an important mission to Constantinople in 1807, but the conclusion of the alliance between Alexander I. and Napoleon at Tilsit in July interrupted his career, necessitating a temporary retirement after the completion of his business with the Porte. He returned to Vienna, but on the demand of Napoleon for his extradition Metternich desired him to leave the capital. In London, where he found safety from Napoleon, he renewed many old ties, and remained in England until 1812, when he was recalled by Alexander. He diligently sought to sow dissension in the Bonaparte household, and in a mission to Sweden he secured the co-operation of Bernadette against Napoleon. On the entry of the allies into Paris he became commissary general to the provisional government. At the Bourbon restoration General Pozzo di Borgo became" Russian ambassador at the Tuileries, and sought to secure a marriage between the duke of Berry and the Russian grand duchess Anna, Alexander's sister. He assisted at the Congress of Vienna, and during the Hundred Days he joined Louis XVIII. in Belgium, where he was also instructed to discuss the situation with Wellington. The tsar dreamed of allowing an appeal to the people of France on the subject of the government of France in accordance with his vague liberalizing tendencies, but Pozzo's suggestions in this direction were met by violent opposition, the duke refusing to make any concessions to what he regarded as rebellion; but in Petersburg, on the other hand, his attachment to the Bourbon dynasty was considered excessive. During the early years of his residence in Paris Pozzo laboured tirelessly to lessen the burdens laid on France by the allies and to shorten the period of foreign occupation. That his French sympathies were recognized in Paris is shown by the strange suggestion that he should enter the French ministry with the portfolio of foreign affairs. He consistently supported the moderate party at court, and stood by the ministry of the duc de Richelieu, thus earning the distrust and dislike of Metternich, who held him responsible for the revival of Liberal agitation in France. His influence at the Tuileries declined with the accession of Charles X., whose reactionary tendencies had always been distasteful to him; but at the revolution of 1830, when the Tsar Nicholas was reluctant to acknowledge Louis Philippe, he did good service in preventing difficulties with Russia. In 1832 he visited Petersburg; the next year he was in London renewing his relations with Wellington, and early in 1835 he was suddenly transferred to the London embassy in succession to Prince Lieven. Although he did not lose in official standing, Pozzo was aware that this change was due to suspicions long harboured in various quarters in St Petersburg that his diplomacy was too favourable to French interests. In London his health suffered, and he retired from the service in 1839 to spend the rest of his days in Paris, where he died on the 1 5th of February 1842. He had been made a count and peer of France in 1818. See Ouvaroff, Stein et Pozzo (St Petersburg, 1846); Correspondence diplomatique du Comte Pozzo di Borgo et du Comte de Nesselrode, ed. by Charles Pozzo di Borgo (2 vols., Paris, 1890-1897); Vicomte A. Maggiolo, Co1'Se, 'France el Russie. Pozzo di Borgo, 1764-1842 (Paris, 1890); ].B.H.R. Capefigure, Les Diplomates européens (4 vols., 1845-1847> »

POZZUOLI (anc. Puteoli, q.v.), a seaport and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Naples, 7½ m. W. of it by rail. Pop. (1906), 17,017 (town), 22,838 (commune). It is situated on and at the base of a hill projecting into the bay at Pozzuoli, separated from the main portion of the Gulf of Naples by the promontory of Posilipo. Its mineral baths are frequented in summer; and the volcanic pozzolana earth (also found near Rome), used now as in Roman times for making cement and concrete, derives its name from the place. In the middle ages Pozzuoli was frequently sacked and also damaged by the natural convulsions of 1198 and 1538. To the north-east of the town is the Solfatura, a half extinct volcano crater in which sulphurous gases are exhaled.

PRABHU, the writer caste of Western India, corresponding to the Kayasth of Bengal. Though numbering only 21,941 in Bombay in 1901, they occupy a very high position socially and in the professions. The first Indian to be appointed to the executive council at Bombay was a Prabhu, of the well-known Chaubal family.

PRADIER, JAMES (1792-1852), French sculptor, was born at Geneva. He was a member of the French Academy, and a popular sculptor of the pre-Romantic period, representing in France the drawing-room classicism which Canova illustrated at Rome. His chief works are the Niobe group (1822), “Atalanta” (1850), “ Psyche ” (1824), “Sappho” (1852) (all in the Louvre), “ Prometheus " (Tuileries Gardens), a bas-relief on the triumphal arch of the Carrousel, the figures of “ Fame " on the Arc de l'Etoile, and a statue of J. ]. Rousseau for Geneva. Besides these mention should be made of his “ Three Graces ” (1821).

PRADILLA, FRANCISCO (1847-), Spanish painter, was born at Villanueva da Gallago (Saragossa). Having studied first at the Fernando Academy, and then at the Spanish Academy in Rome, of which he was afterwards director, he became the leading historical painter of modern Spain. In 1896 he was appointed director of the Madrid Museum. Though he is best known for such large historical compositions as “Joan the Mad” (gold medal, Paris, 1878), and “The Surrender of Granada” (gold medal, Munich, 1883), in which he discarded the heavy colouring of Laurens for a lighter and more atmospheric key, he has painted many excellent genre pictures in the manner of Fortuny, and some decorative compositions in which he follows the example of Tiepolo. The best of these are his decorations in the Murgo Palace in Madrid. Among his best known works are “ Elopement, ” “ Strand at Vigo, ” “ Procession in Venice, ” “ La Fiorella, ” “Reading on the Balcony, ” “ Don Alfonso the Warrior, ” and “ Don Alfonso the Scholar.” He became member of the Berlin Academy in 1892.

PRAED, WINTHROP MACKWORTH (1802-1839), English poet, was born in London on the 26th of July 1802. The old family name was Mackworth, the additional name of Praed being derived from the marriage of the poet's great grandfather with a Cornish heiress. His father, William Mackworth Praed, was a serjeant-at-law. His mother belonged to the English branch of the New England family of Winthrop. In 1814 Praed was sent to Eton College. He there founded a manuscript periodical called Apis matina. This was succeeded in October 1820 by the Elonion, a. paper projected and