Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/660

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Die Hebezeuge; A. Ritter, Lehrbuch der-'technischen Mechanik; ]. Weisbach and G. Herrmann, The Mechanics of Hoisting Machinery; F. Reuleaux, Der Constructeur;, A. B. W. Kennedy, Mechanics of Machinery; ]. Perry, Applied Mechanics; W. E. Dalby, Balancing of Engines. (E. G. C.)

PULLMAN, formerly a town of Cook county, Illinois, U.S.A., and now a part of the city of Chicago. Here are the works of the Pullman Palace Car Company, steel forging plants, and other factories. The place was founded in 1880 by George Mortimer Pullman (1831-1897), the inventor of the Pullman sleeping car, and the founder (1867) of the Pullman Palace Car Company, who attempted to make it a “ model town.” Even the public works were the property of the Pullman Company and were managed as a business investment. Popular discontent with the conditions led to the annexation of Pullman to Chicago in 1889, but until IQIO the corporation held most of the property. In June and July 1894 a bitter railway strike developed from a controversy between employed and employers in the Pullman works. (See CHICAGO and ILLINOIS: History.) PULPIT (from Lat. pulpitnm, a staging, platform: equivalents are Fr. chaire d'église, Ital. pulpito, Ger. Kanzel), a raised platform with enclosed front, whence sermons, homilies, &c., were delivered. Pulpits were probably derived in their modern form from the ambones in the early Christian Church (see AMBO). There are many old pulpits of stone, though the majority are of wood. Those in churches are generally hexagonal or octagonal; and some stand on stone bases, and others on slender wooden stems, like columns. The designs Vary accordingly to the periods in which they were erected, having panelling, tracing, cuspings, crockets, and other ornaments then in use. Some are extremely rich, and ornamented with colour and gilding. A few also have fine canopies or sounding-boards. Their usual place is in the nave, mostly on the north side, against the second pier from the chancel arch. Pulpits for addressing the people in the open air were common in the medieval period, and stood near a road or cross. Thus there was one at Spital Fields, and one at St Paul's, London. External pulpits still remain at Magdalen College, Oxford, and at Shrewsbury. Pulpits, or rather places for reading during the meals of the monks, are found in the refectories at Chester, Beaulieu, Shrewsbury, &c., in England; and at St Martin des Champs, St Germain des Prés, &c., in Paris; also in(the cloisters at St Dié and St Lo. Shortly after the Reformation the canons ordered pulpits to be erected in all churches where there were none before. It is supposed that to this circumstance we owe many of the time of Elizabeth and James. Many of them are very beautifully and elaborately carved, and are evidently of Flemish workmanship. The pulpits in the Mahommedan mosques, which are known as “ mimbars ” are quite different in form, being usually canopied and approached by a straight flight of steps. These have a doorway at the foot, with an enriched lintel and boldly moulded head; the whole of the work to this and to the stairs, parapet and pulpit itself being of wood, richly inlaid, and often in part gorgeously painted and gilt.

PULQUE, or PULQUE FUERTE, the national beverage of the Mexican natives. It is prepared by fermenting the juice of a number of species of the agave (agava potato rum, Americana, &c.). The cultivation of the agave for purposes of pulque manufacture constitutes a considerable local industry, the capital invested running into several millions sterling. The juice obtained by tapping the agave is termed aguamiel. A quantity of this is allowed to ferment naturally for about ten days, and the product so obtained is termed madre pulque (mother of pulque). A small quantity of this is added to fresh aguamiel, and thereby a rapid fermentation is induced, the pulque being ready for consumption within a day or two. It has a somewhat heavy flavour, resembling sour milk, but it is much esteemed by the natives on account of its cooling, and according to them wholesome and nutritious, properties. PULSE. (1) (O. Fr. pols, Lat. pals, pultis, Gr. vrékros, a porridge of beans, peas, &c.), in botany, a collective term for beans, peas, and other members of the order Leguminosae (q.'v.), which is characterized by having a legume or pod for the fruit. (2) (M.~Eng. pans, ponce, O. Fr. pans, mod. pousse, Lat. pulsus, sc. venarum, the beating of the veins, pellere, to drive, beat), throbbing or beating; in physiology the rhythmical beating due to the changes of blood-tension in the arteries consequent on the contractions of their ' elastic tissues (see VASCULAR SYSTEM).

PULSZKY, FERENCZ AUREL (1814-1897), Hungarian politician and author, was born on the 17th of September 1814 at Eperjes. After studying law and philosophy at the high schools of his native town and Miskolcz, he travelled abroad. England particularly attracted him, and his fascinating book, Aus dem Tagebach eines in Grossbritannien reisenden U ngarns (Pesth, 1837), gained for him the membership of the Hungarian Academy. Elected to the Reichstag of 1840, he was in 1848 appointed to a financial post in the Hungarian government, and was transferred in like capacity to Vienna under Esterhazy. Suspected of intriguing with the revolutionists, Pulszky fled to Budapest to avoid arrest. Here he became an activeimember of the committee of national defence, and when obliged to fly the country he joined Kossuth in England and with him made a tour in the United States of America. In collaboration with his wife he wrote a narrative of this voyage, entitled White, Red, Black (3 vols., London, 1853). He was condemned to death (1852) in cantumaciam by a council of war. In 1860 he went to Italy, took part in Garibaldi's expedition to Aspromonte (1862), and was interned as a prisoner of war in Naples. Amnestied by the emperor of Austria in 1866, he returned home and reentered public life; was from 1867-1876, and again in 1884, a member of the Hungarian Diet, joining the Déak party. In addition to his political activity, he was president of the literary section of the Hungarian Academy, and director of the National Museum at Budapest, where he became distinguished for his archaeological researches. He employed his great influence to promote both art and science and Liberal views in his native country. He died on the 9th of September 1897. Among his writings are Die .Iacobiner in U ngarn (Leipzig, 1851) and Eletem és Korom (Pest, 1880), and many treatises on Hungarian questions in the publications of the Academy of Pest.-Some Reminiscences of Kossuth and Pulszky were published by F. W. Newman in 1888.

PULTUSK, a town of Russian Poland, in the government of Warsaw, 33 m. N. of the city of Warsaw, on the right bank of the Narew. Pop. (1897), 15,878. The town was almost entirely destroyed by fire in 1875. It is now well built, and had before the ire a palace (1319) whichwas formerly a residence of the bishops of Plock. The industries include woollen, linen and hosiery mills, copper works and potteries. In 1703 Charles XII. of Sweden defeated and captured the greater part of a Saxon army near this town, and in the same locality the French defeated the Russians in December 1806. The town was founded as early as 956.

PUMA, a name, probably of native origin, introduced into European literature by the early Spanish writers on South America (as Garcilaso de la Vega and Hernandez) for one of the largest cats (Felis concolor) of the New World. It is generally called “couguar ” by the French, “leon” by the Spanish Americans, and “ panther” by the Anglo-American hunters of the United States (see CARNIVORA). Though often spoken of as the American lion, chiefly on account of its colour, it rather resembles the leopard of the Old World in size and habits: usually measuring from nose to root of tail about 40 in., the tail being rather more than half that length. The head is small compared with that of other cats and has no mane. The ears are large and rounded. The tail is cylindrical, with sbme bushy elongation of the hairs near the end, but not forming a distinct tuft. The general colour of the upper parts and sides of the adult is a tawny yellowish brown, sometimes having a grey or silvery shade, but in some cases dark or inclining to red; and upon these and other differences. which are probably